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Table 1 Patient characteristics, therapies, and outcomes in the survival and nonsurvival groups

From: Beneficial effect modification on survival outcome of sepsis between ART-123 and polymyxin B‑immobilised haemoperfusion: a nationwide Japanese registry study

 Survival
(n = 1611)
Nonsurvival
(n = 739)
P value
ICU management policy  0.034
 Closed, n (%)939 (58.3)459 (62.1) 
 Open, n (%)386 (24.0)180 (24.4) 
 Other, n (%)286 (17.8)100 (13.5) 
Admission route to the ICU  < 0.001
 Emergency department, n (%)700 (43.5)299 (40.5) 
 Other hospital, n (%)517 (32.1)167 (22.6) 
 Ward, n (%)394 (24.5)273 (36.9) 
Age (years)71 (60, 79)73 (64, 80)< 0.001
Male sex, n (%)947 (58.8)469 (63.5)0.031
Body weight (kg)55.7 (47.8, 65.0)54.2 (47.0, 63.0)0.008
Pre-existing organ insufficiency or immunosuppression based on APACHE II score
 Liver, n (%)48 (3.0)61 (8.3)< 0.001
 Respiratory, n (%)54 (3.4)40 (5.4)0.018
 Cardiovascular, n (%)78 (4.8)67 (9.1)< 0.001
 Renal, n (%)95 (5.9)86 (11.6)< 0.001
 Immunocompromised, n (%)202 (12.5)170 (23.0)< 0.001
Pre-existing haemostatic disorders
 Cirrhosis, n (%)48 (3.0)55 (7.4)< 0.001
 Haematological malignancy, n (%)31 (1.9)48 (6.5)< 0.001
 Chemotherapy, n (%)48 (3.0)61 (8.3)< 0.001
 Warfarin intake, n (%)71 (4.4)30 (4.1)0.700
 Other, n (%)23 (1.4)26 (3.5)0.001
APACHE II score21 (16, 26)28 (21, 35)< 0.001
SOFA score9 (6, 11)12 (9, 15)< 0.001
SIRS score3 (2, 4)3 (2, 4)0.031
JAAM-DIC score3 (2, 5)5 (3, 6)< 0.001
Blood lactate (mmol/L)2.6 (1.6, 4.6)4.5 (2.1, 8.9)< 0.001
Blood culture  < 0.001
 Not taken, n (%)87 (5.4)23 (3.1) 
 Positive, n (%)659 (40.9)364 (49.3) 
 Negative, n (%)865 (53.7)352 (47.6) 
Microorganisms  0.033
 Unknown, n (%)352 (21.8)150 (20.3) 
 Virus, n (%)14 (0.9)7 (0.9) 
 Gram-negative rod, n (%)606 (37.6)239 (32.3) 
 Gram-positive coccus, n (%)381 (23.6)185 (25.0) 
 Fungus, n (%)25 (1.6)16 (2.2) 
 Mixed infection, n (%)203 (12.6)127 (17.2) 
 Others, n (%)30 (1.9)15 (2.0) 
Primary source of infection  < 0.001
 Unknown, n (%)75 (4.7)69 (9.3) 
 Catheter-related bloodstream infection, n (%)17 (1.1)12 (1.6) 
 Bone or soft tissue, n (%)220 (13.7)80 (10.8) 
 Cardiovascular system, n (%)33 (2.0)12 (1.6) 
 Central nervous system, n (%)34 (2.1)18 (2.4) 
 Urinary tract, n (%)295 (18.3)63 (8.5) 
 Lung or thoracic cavity, n (%)366 (22.7)249 (33.7) 
 Abdomen, n (%)541 (33.6)228 (30.9) 
 Other, n (%)30 (1.9)8 (1.1) 
Specific treatments
 Surgical intervention, n (%)740 (45.9)250 (33.8)< 0.001
 Mechanical ventilator, (days)4 (0, 9)5 (2, 16)< 0.001
 Vasopressor, n (%)1166 (72.4)663 (89.7)< 0.001
 Immunoglobulins, n (%)520 (32.3)271 (36.7)0.036
 Low-dose steroids, n (%)330 (20.5)286 (38.7)< 0.001
 Veno-arterial ECMO, n (%)5 (0.3)18 (2.4)< 0.001
 Veno-venous ECMO, n (%)15 (0.9)19 (2.6)0.002
 Intra-aortic balloon pumping, n (%)4 (0.2)6 (0.8)0.081
Therapeutic interventions for DIC
 ART-123, n (%)489 (30.4)231 (31.3)0.659
 Antithrombin, n (%)541 (33.6)279 (37.8)0.049
 Protease inhibitors, n (%)185 (11.5)120 (16.2)0.001
 Heparinoids, n (%)85 (5.3)36 (4.9)0.680
Antithrombotic drugs for conditions other than DIC
 Heparin, n (%)210 (13.0)87 (11.8)0.392
 Warfarin, n (%)23 (1.4)4 (0.5)0.061
 Anti-platelet drugs, n (%)35 (2.2)13 (1.8)0.511
 Other, n (%)12 (0.7)3 (0.4)0.415
 Nafamostat mesylate for blood purifications, n (%)398 (24.7)298 (40.3)< 0.001
Blood purifications
 PMX-HP, n (%)332 (20.6)189 (25.6)0.007
 RRT, n (%)369 (22.9)327 (44.2)< 0.001
 RRT for non-renal indications, n (%)115 (7.1)80 (10.8)0.003
 Plasma exchange, n (%)8 (0.5)15 (2.0)< 0.001
Concomitant treatment with ART-123 and PMX-HP, n (%)164 (10.2)83 (11.2)0.440
Bleeding complications, n (%)155 (9.6)129 (17.5)< 0.001
Time from ICU admission to hospital discharge (days)33 (18, 61)14 (3, 30.5)< 0.001
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or median (interquartile range)
  2. APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit, JAAM Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, PMX-HP polymyxin B‑immobilised haemoperfusion, RRT renal replacement therapy, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment