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Table 1 Characteristics and main outcomes

From: Lack of viral clearance by the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or lopinavir and ritonavir in SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome

 Hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin (n = 17)Lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 13)Controls (n = 15)p value
Age (years, mean ± SD)60 ± 1762 ± 1360 ± 160.94
Male gender15 (88%)9 (69%)11 (73%)0.41
Hypertension8 (47%)8 (62%)5 (33%)0.33
Diabetes mellitus6 (35%)5 (38%)2 (13%)0.26
Chronic cardiac disease2 (12%)5 (38%)00.02
Chronic respiratory disease2 (12%)2 (15%)1 (7%)0.76
Obesity6 (35%)6 (46%)9 (60%)0.38
Immunosuppressive therapy1 (6%)1 (8%)0 (0%)0.58
Time from COVID-19 symptoms onset to treatment (days, median, IQR)7 (4–11)5 (2–6)8 (4.5–10.5)a0.06
Time from COVID-19 treatment to ARDS (days, median, IQR)1 (0–4)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)a0.02
SAPS 2 score (mean ± SD) at ICU admission30 ± 733 ± 1149 ± 14< 0.01
SOFA score at ICU admission (median, 1st–3rd Quartile)4 (3–6)6 (3–7)6 (4–9.5)0.27
PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ICU admission (mean ± SD)141 ± 48159 ± 37129 ± 500.21
Vt at ICU admission (ml, mean ± SD)388 ± 64392 ± 76415 ± 420.59
PEEP at ICU admission, (cm H2O, median, 1st–3rd quartile)12 ± 213 ± 213 ± 30.8
SARS-CoV-2 PCR CT values at diagnosis (mean ± SD)b28 ± 525 ± 90.88
SARS-CoV-2 PCR CT values at day 6 from treatment (mean ± SD)b29 ± 533 ± 10.01
Negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR at day 6 from treatment3 (18%)5 (38%)2c (20%)0.39
Negative SARS-CoV-2-PCR at day 6 from ARDS2 (12%)5 (38%)2 (13%)0.14
PaO2/FiO2 ratio at day 6 from ARDS onset (mean ± SD)160 ± 59183 ± 64150 ± 460.69
SOFA score at day 6 from treatment (median, IQR)4.5 (3–6)6 (4–6)6 (5–7)0.9
SOFA score at day 6 from ARDS onset (median, IQR)4.5 (3–7)6 (4–6)6 (5–7)0.9
Alive at day 6 from ARDS15 (88%)13 (100%)15 (100%) 
Invasive mechanical ventilationd16 (94%)12 (92%)15 (100%) 
Neuromuscular blockersd16 (94%)11 (85%)14 (93%) 
Prone positioningd14 (82%)8 (62%)12 (80%) 
Inhaled nitric oxided4 (24%)3 (23%)4 (27%) 
ECMOd2 (12%)1 (8%)1 (7%) 
  1. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, CT cycle threshold, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, SAPS 2 Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score, Vt tidal volume
  2. aAntibiotics (no anti-viral treatment and no azithromycin in this group)
  3. bWhen available, in positive patients
  4. cOnly 10 patients assessed
  5. dDuring the first 6 days of ARDS
  6. - Data not available