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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Multidisciplinary team approach in acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

VariablesTotal (n = 255)Pre-ECMO team (n = 131)Post-ECMO team (n = 124)p value
Demographics
 Age, years64.0 ± 11.863.4 ± 12.064.7 ± 11.50.384
 Male200 (78.4)105 (80.2)95 (76.6)0.593
 Body mass index, kg/m224.4 ± 3.523.8 ± 3.325.1 ± 3.70.004
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Hypertension135 (52.9)67 (51.1)68 (54.8)0.642
 Diabetes mellitus128 (50.2)67 (51.1)61 (49.2)0.852
 Dyslipidemia37 (14.5)20 (15.3)17 (13.7)0.861
 Chronic kidney disease28 (11.0)15 (11.5)13 (10.5)0.963
 History of myocardial infarction61 (23.9)17 (13.0)44 (35.5)< 0.001
 History of percutaneous coronary intervention75 (29.4)27 (20.6)48 (38.7)0.002
 History of cerebrovascular accident27 (10.6)18 (13.7)9 (7.3)0.139
Clinical presentation
 STEMI164 (64.3)89 (67.9)75 (60.5)0.266
 Systolic pressure, mmHga73.0 (67.0–82.5)74.0 (70.0–81.0)71.0 (67.0–83.0)0.698
 Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest39 (15.3)17 (13.0)22 (17.7)0.377
 In-hospital cardiac arrest163 (63.9)82 (62.6)81 (65.3)0.747
 Left ventricular ejection fraction, %32.0 (25.0–41.0)32.0 (25.0–45.0)30.0 (24.5–40.0)0.542
Laboratory findings
 Hemoglobin, g/dL12.5 (10.4–14.7)12.5 (10.5–14.8)12.5 (10.2–14.6)0.565
 Prothrombin time, %81.0 (63.0–92.0)81.0 (63.0–91.0)83.5 (62.0–95.5)0.318
 Total bilirubin, mg/dL0.8 (0.5–1.1)0.9 (0.6–1.1)0.7 (0.4–1.0)0.014
 Creatinine, mg/dL1.3 (1.0–1.8)1.2 (1.0–1.8)1.3 (1.0–1.7)0.644
 Lactic acid, mmol/L5.5 (2.7–9.5)6.1 (2.9–10.5)4.7 (2.5–7.9)0.060
 Peak troponin I, ng/mL156.5 (39.3–486.5)153.5 (44.8–489.4)159.6 (31.1–481.4)0.591
 Peak CK-MB, ng, mL233.6 (60.3–423.3)254.2 (51.5–484.2)202.1 (62.3–383.2)0.413
Severity score
 ENCOURAGE score20.0 (14.0–24.5)19.0 (14.0–24.0)20.5 (16.0–25.0)0.304
 AMI-ECMO score20.0 (16.0–27.0)21.0 (16.0–27.0)19.0 (16.0–27.0)0.749
 SOFA score11.0 (9.0–13.0)11.0 (9.0–13.0)11.0 (9.0–12.0)0.257
Angiographic findings
 Infarct-related artery0.173
  Left anterior descending artery114 (44.7)62 (47.3)52 (41.9) 
  Left circumflex artery30 (11.8)15 (11.5)15 (12.1) 
  Right coronary artery47 (18.4)21 (16.0)26 (21.0) 
  Left main coronary artery59 (23.1)28 (21.4)31 (25.0) 
  Unknown5 (2.0)5 (3.8)0 (0) 
 Multivessel disease201 (78.8)98 (74.8)103 (83.1)0.144
  1. Data are presented as n (%), means ± standard deviations, or medians (interquartile ranges)
  2. AMI acute myocardial infarction, CK-MB creatine kinase-myocardial band, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
  3. aValue measured just before ECMO insertion procedure in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock without cardiac arrest at the time of ECMO insertion