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Table 1 Baseline clinical parameters of the study population

From: Comparison of the proximal and distal approaches for axillary vein catheterization under ultrasound guidance (PANDA) in cardiac surgery patients susceptible to bleeding: a randomized controlled trial

  Proximal group (n = 99) Distal group (n = 99) p value
Gender (male), n (%) 72 (72.7) 60 (60.6) 0.10
Age (years) 62 (53, 69) 60 (47, 68) 0.29
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24 ± 4.8 23.4 ± 4.0 0.34
Type of surgery, n (%)
 CABG only 17 (17.2) 12 (12.1) 0.42
 Valve only 26 (26.3) 37 (37.4) 0.13
 CABG and valve 10 (10.1) 8 (8.1) 0.81
 Aortic surgery 31 (31.3) 28 (28.3) 0.77
 Other cardiac surgery 15 (15.2) 14 (14.1) 1.00
EuroScore 6 (4, 7) 6 (3, 8) 0.66
Single antiplatelet drug administration, n (%) 10 (10.1) 17 (17.2) 0.21
Dural antiplatelet drugs administration, n (%) 17 (17.2) 13 (13.1) 0.55
Anticoagulants administration only, n (%) 62 (62.6) 61 (61.6) 1.00
Antiplatelet drug and anticoagulants administration, n (%) 10 (10.1) 8 (8.1) 0.81
Reasons for catheterization, n (%)
 Tracheostomy 57 (57.6) 59 (59.6) 0.89
 Hemodynamic monitoring 26 (26.3) 18 (18.2) 0.23
 Catheter dysfunction 11 (11.1) 16 (16.2) 0.41
 Suspicion of bloodstream infection 5 (5.1) 6 (6.1) 1.00
 Patients on ECMO, n (%) 3 (3.0) 5 (5.1) 0.72
 Patients on IABP, n (%) 3 (3.0) 5 (5.1) 0.72
 Patients on RRT, n (%) 38 (38.4) 33 (33.3) 0.55
 Duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, days 11 (6, 18) 11 (6, 19) 0.73
 Median length of ICU stay, days 19 (12, 31) 18 (10, 26) 0.29
 Median length of hospital stay, days 33 (23, 48) 29 (20, 43) 0.10
 ICU mortality, n (%) 15 (15.2) 20 (20.2) 0.46
 Hospital mortality, n (%) 16 (16.2) 22 (22.2) 0.37
  1. Continuous data are presented as the mean (SD) or median (IQR). Categorical data are presented as counts (%)
  2. CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, RRT renal replacement therapy