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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, radiographic, laboratory results of patients with COVID-19

From: Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a large cohort study

  All patients (n = 1190) Survivor (n = 1033) Non-survivor (n = 157) p value
Age
Median (IQR), year 57 (47, 67) 56 (46, 65) 69 (62, 77) < 0.0001
Sex, n (%)
 Female 555 (46.6) 498 (48.2) 57 (36.3) 0.0053
 Male 635 (53.4) 535 (51.8) 100 (63.7)  
Smoking, n (%) 45 (4.5) 40 (4.6) 5 (3.8) 1
Drinking, n (%) 48 (4.6) 43 (4.7) 5 (3.9) 0.6901
Epidemic disease history, n (%)
 Influenza A
  Negative 1131 (96.5) 987 (96.7) 144 (94.8) 0.4308
  Positive 19 (1.6) 15 (1.5) 4 (2.6)  
  Unchecked or unknown 22 (1.9) 18 (1.8) 4 (2.6)  
 Influenza B
  Negative 1133 (96.6) 990 (97.0) 143 (94.1) 0.1257
  Positive 18 (1.5) 13 (1.2) 5 (3.3)  
  Unchecked or unknown 22 (1.9) 18 (1.8) 4 (2.6)  
Exposure history, n (%)
 Huanan seafood market 131 (11.4) 125 (12.5) 6 (4.1) 0.0028
 Wuhan exposure 1119 (94.7) 968 (94.2) 151 (98.1) 0.0451
 Other parts of Hubei 56 (5.0) 54 (5.5) 2 (1.4) 0.0373
 Contact with wildlife 17 (1.5) 17 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 0.2238
 Medical staff 16 (1.4) 16 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 0.2446
 Clustered cases 132 (11.2) 118 (11.5) 14 (9.2) 0.6726
Any comorbidity, n (%) 441 (37.1%) 345 (33.4%) 96 (61.15%) < 0.0001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 22 (1.9) 14 (1.4) 8 (5.3) 1
 Diabetes 144 (12.2) 105 (10.2) 39 (25.5) < 0.0001
 Hypertension 308 (26.1) 244 (23.8) 64 (41.8) < 0.0001
 Chronic cardiac disease 86 (7.3) 61 (6.0) 25 (16.3) < 0.0001
 Chronic kidney disease 30 (2.6) 24 (2.4) 6 (3.9) 0.38
 Chronic liver disease 40 (3.4) 32 (3.1) 8 (5.2) 0.1779
 Stroke 39 (3.3) 28 (2.7) 11 (7.2) 0.0041
 Malignancy 34 (2.9) 26 (2.5) 8 (5.2) 0.1115
 Immunosuppression 24 (2.0) 15 (1.5) 9 (5.9) 0.0009
 Tuberculosis 15 (1.3) 10 (1.4) 5 (3.3) 0.0475
Signs and symptoms at admission, n (%)    
 Fever 971 (81.9) 834 (80.9) 137 (89.0) 0.0152
 Median highest temperature (IQR), °C 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 0.0233
 Nasal congestion 11 (0.9) 8 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 1
 Nasal discharges 16 (1.4) 13 (1.3) 3 (2.0) 0.7521
 Sneeze 5 (0.4) 4 (0.4) 1 (0.7) 0.5019
 Sore throat 39 (3.3) 36 (3.5) 3 (2.0) 0.3171
 Cough 879 (74.2) 751 (72.8) 128 (83.7) 0.0041
 Sputum production 417 (35.2) 352 (34.1) 65 (42.5) 0.0438
 Dyspnoea 548 (46.3) 439 (42.6) 109 (71.2) < 0.0001
 Chest pain 62 (5.3) 56 (5.5) 6 (3.9) 0.427
 Hemoptysis 14 (1.2) 11 (1.1) 3 (2.0) 0.5846
 Headache 61 (5.2) 59 (5.8) 2 (1.3) 0.0204
 Myalgia 133 (11.3) 116 (11.3) 17 (11.1) 0.937
 Fatigue 434 (36.7) 369 (35.9) 65 (42.5) 0.1128
 Gastrointestinal symptoms 214 (18.2) 189 (18.4) 25 (16.3) 0.5333
 Eye symptoms 23 (2.0) 22 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 0.3502
 Ronchi 57 (4.8) 47 (4.6) 10 (6.5) 0.2953
 Crackles 170 (14.4) 143 (13.9) 27 (17.5) 0.2265
 Systolic pressure
  Median (IQR), mmHg 122 (111, 135) 122 (110, 134) 130.5 (117, 144) 0.0002
 Diastolic pressure
  Median (IQR), mmHg 80 (72, 87) 80 (73, 87) 80 (72, 87) 0.0944
 Heart rate
  Median (IQR), bpm 86 (79, 96) 86 (78, 96) 89 (82, 102) < 0.0001
 Respiratory rate     
  Median (IQR), bpm 22 (20, 25) 21 (20, 25) 23 (20, 28) 0.9936
SOFA 3 (1, 5) 2 (1, 4) 10 (6, 18) < 0.0001
APACHEII 3 (1, 6) 3 (1, 5) 10.5 (8, 17) < 0.0001
Laboratory findings
 Leucocytes (IQR-109/L) 6.3 (4.6, 9.1) 6.0 (4.5, 8.1) 15.5 (8.9, 21.9) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 4 185 (16.1) 171 (16.9) 14 (10.1) < 0.0001
  4–10 726 (63.0) 702 (69.2) 24 (17.3)  
  > 10 242 (21.0) 141 (13.9) 101 (72.6)  
 Neutrophils (IQR-109/L) 4.4 (2.9, 7.3) 4.1 (2.8, 6.2) 14.7 (9.9, 20.3) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 1.8 65 (5.8) 61 (6.1) 4 (3.1) < 0.0001
  1.8–6.3 715 (63.2) 702 (70.2) 13 (10.0)  
  > 6.3 351 (31.0) 237 (23.7) 114 (87.0)  
 Lymphocytes (IQR-109/L) 1.2 (0.7, 1.6) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 0.5 (0.3, 0.9) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 0.8 315 (28.0) 221 (22.2) 94 (72.9) < 0.0001
  ≥ 0.8 809 (72.0) 774 (77.8) 35 (27.1)  
 CD3 (IQR-/μL) 618 (427, 964) 647 (468, 991) 367 (267, 409) < 0.0001
 CD4 (IQR-/μL) 366 (242, 594) 388 (275, 645) 211 (275, 645) < 0.0001
 CD8 (IQR-/μL) 235 (138, 337) 242 (156, 356) 129 (87, 144) < 0.0001
 Hemoglobin (IQR-g/L) 120 (109.0, 130.0) 120 (110.0, 130.0) 120 (103.0, 133.0) 0.4723
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 90 54 (4.7) 7 (3.7) 17 (12.8) < 0.0001
  > 90 1092 (95.3) 976 (96.3) 116 (87.3)  
 Platelets (IQR-109/L) 193 (143.0, 250.0) 201 (154.0, 256.0) 90.5 (50.0, 165.0) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 100 122 (10.6) 49 (4.8) 73 (52.9) < 0.0001
  ≥ 100 1029 (89.4) 964 (95.2) 65 (47.1)  
 Prothrombin time (IQR-s) 11.5 (10.7, 12.6) 11.4 (10.6, 12.3) 14 (12.4, 17.5) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 10.5 201 (18.0) 197 (20.0) 4 (3.0) < 0.0001
  10.5–13.5 763 (68.2) 711 (72.3) 52 (38.8)  
  > 13.5 154 (13.8) 76 (7.7) 78 (58.2)  
 Activated-partial thromboplastin time (IQR-s) 27.7 (24.3, 32.5) 27.2 (24.2, 31.8) 33.4 (26.1, 38.9) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 21 68 (6.1) 61 (6.2) 7 (5.4) < 0.0001
  21–37 927 (83.4) 847 (86.3) 80 (62.0)  
  > 37 116 (10.4) 74 (7.5) 42 (32.6)  
 Thrombin time (IQR, s) 17.9 (16.7, 20.6) 17.8 (16.7, 20.4) 18.4 (17.1, 23.0) 0.0054
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 13 8 (0.7) 8 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 0.0321
  13–21 842 (75.9) 753 (76.7) 89 (69.5)  
  > 21 260 (23.4) 221 (22.5) 39 (30.5)  
 D-dimer (IQR, μg/mL) 0.9 (0.4, 2.5) 0.8 (0.4, 1.6) 17.8 (4.5, 56.5) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 0.5 323 (29.6) 319 (33.2) 4 (3.1) < 0.0001
  0.5–1 279 (25.6) 270 (28.1) 9 (6.9)  
  > 1 489 (44.8) 371 (38.7) 118 (90.9)  
 Total bilirubin (IQR, μmol/L) 13 (10.1, 17.7) 12.4 (9.8, 16.1) 24.9 (16.6, 36.1) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 26 1005 (90.0) 932 (94.8) 73 (54.5) < 0.0001
  > 26 112 (10.0) 51 (5.2) 61 (45.5)  
 Alanine aminotransferase (IQR-U/L) 42 (25.0, 66.0) 40 (24.0, 62.0) 47 (31.0, 84.0) 0.0003
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 40 559 (48.8) 508 (50.2) 51 (37.8) 0.0065
  > 40 587 (51.2) 503 (49.8) 84 (62.2)  
 Aspartate aminotransferase (IQR-U/L) 35 (26.0, 51.0) 33 (25.0, 46.0) 58 (44.0, 109.0) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 40 702 (61.2) 680 (67.3) 22 (16.1) < 0.0001
  > 40 445 (38.8) 330 (32.7) 115 (83.9)  
 Albumin (IQR, g/L) 31.3 (28.0, 34.7) 32 (29.0, 35.2) 26.15 (24.3, 28.3) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 40 1106 (96.2) 966 (95.6) 140 (100.0) 0.0144
  40–55 41 (3.6) 41 (4.1) 0 (0.0)  
  > 55 3 (0.3) 3 (0.3) 0 (0.0)  
 Serum prealbumin (IQR-g/L) 125 (80.0, 187.0) 137 (91.0, 194.0) 48.5 (29.5, 75.0) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 200 874 (79.2) 748 (76.7) 126 (98.4) < 0.0001
  200–430 229 (20.8) 227 (23.3) 2 (1.6)  
 Blood urea nitrogen (IQR-mmol/L) 5.2 (4.1, 6.8) 4.97 (4.0, 6.2) 13.2 (7.7, 20.3) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 3.1 81 (7.1) 81 (8.0) 0 (0.0) < 0.0001
  3.1–8 865 (75.7) 827 (82.1) 38 (28.4)  
  > 8 196 (17.2) 100 (9.9) 96 (71.6)  
 Serum creatinine (IQR, μmol/L) 72.6 (59.6, 88.6) 71.5 (59.0, 84.3) 107.8 (69.2, 196.7) <0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  > 133 84 (7.4) 32 (3.2) 52 (39.4) < 0.0001
  ≤ 133 1051 (92.6) 971 (96.8) 80 (60.6)  
 Creatine kinase (IQR-U/L) 78 (51.0, 151.0) 73 (49.0, 132.5) 240 (101.0, 553.0) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 50 243 (23.7) 236 (25.7) 7 (6.6) < 0.0001
  50–310 676 (65.9) 619 (67.3) 57 (53.8)  
  > 310 107 (10.4) 65 (7.0) 42 (39.6)  
 Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (IQR-U/L) 14 (10.0, 18.0) 13 (10.0, 17.0) 24 (18.0, 47.0) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 24 960 (88.4) 896 (93.3) 64 (50.8) < 0.0001
  > 24 126 (11.6) 64 (6.7) 62 (49.2)  
 C-reactive protein (IQR, mg/L) 30.1 (5.7, 92.0) 22.5 (4.3, 67.2) 160 (124.2, 177.1) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 6.9 290 (28.4) 287 (32.1) 3 (2.3) < 0.0001
  > 6.9 731 (71.6) 606 (67.9) 125 (97.7)  
 Serum amyloid protein A (IQR-mg/L) 190.8 (34.3, 275.9) 178.6 (25.6, 270.3) 260.1 (188.9, 284.0) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 10 151 (15.8) 149 (17.5) 2 (1.9) < 0.0001
  > 10 805 (84.2) 702 (82.5) 103 (98.1)  
 Serum ferritin (IQR-ng/mL) 406.1 (137.2, 800.8) 384.8 (146.0, 711.8) 616.6 (38.7, 2000.0) 0.0099
 Distribution, n (%)
  < 21.8 36 (4.7) 32 (4.9) 4 (3.6) 0.7535
  21.8–274.6 263 (34.2) 224 (34.1) 39 (34.8)  
  > 274.6 470 (61.1) 401 (61.0) 69 (61.6)  
 Interleukin-6 (IQR-pg/mL) 14.45 (8.0, 416.0) 13.2 (7.7, 366.2) 31.9 (11.1, 1487.0) < 0.0001
 Distribution, n (%)
  ≤ 7 28 (3.4) 25 (3.5) 3 (2.8) 0.909
  > 7 789 (96.6) 684 (96.5) 105 (97.2)  
Radiologic findings
 Abnormalities, n (%)
 Ground-glass opacity 1027 (92.3) 910 (92.3) 117 (92.1) 0.9474
 Pulmonary consolidation 194 (17.4) 155 (15.7) 39 (30.7) < 0.0001
 Pulmonary interstitial abnormalities 700 (63.0) 609 (61.8) 91 (71.7) 0.0309
 Pneumothorax 31 (2.8) 24 (2.4) 7 (5.5) 0.0901
 Pleural effusion 49 (4.4) 43 (4.4) 6 (4.7) 0.851
  1. SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHEII Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ICU intensive care unit, MV mechanical ventilation