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Table 3 Clinical characteristics, radiographic, laboratory results of the study patients

From: Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a large cohort study

  Not severe patients at admission (n = 1102) Non-progressors (n = 841) Progressors (n = 261) p value Severe patients (n = 349) Survivor (n = 192) Non-survivor (n = 157) p value
Age
 Median (IQR), year 56 (46, 66) 55 (45, 65) 62 (52, 70) < 0.0001 63 (53, 72) 57 (48, 66) 69 (62, 77) < 0.0001
 Sex, n (%)
  Female 516 (46.8) 412 (49.0) 104 (39.9) 0.0097 143 (41.0) 86 (44.8) 57 (36.3) 0.1088
  Male 586 (53.2) 429 (51.0) 157 (60.1)   206 (59.0) 106 (55.2) 100 (63.7)  
Smoking, n (%) 40 (4.3) 25 (3.5) 15 (7.2) 1 20 (7.0) 15 (9.9) 5 (3.8) 1
Drinking, n (%) 44 (4.6) 25 (3.3) 19 (8.8) 0.0006 23 (7.9) 18 (11.0) 5 (3.9) 0.0251
Epidemic disease history, n (%)
 Influenza A
  Negative 1045 (96.3) 799 (96.3) 246 (96.5) 0.4315 332 (97.1) 188 (98.9) 144 (94.8) 0.0421
  Positive 19 (1.8) 13 (1.6) 6 (2.3)   6 (1.7) 2 (1.1) 4 (2.6)  
  Unchecked or unknown 21 (1.9) 18 (2.1) 3 (1.2)   4 (1.2) 0 (0.00) 4 (2.6)  
 Influenza B
  Negative 1048 (96.5) 800 (96.3) 248 (97.3) 0.6044 333 (97.4) 190 (100.0) 143 (94.1) 0.0032
  Positive 17 (1.6) 13 (1.5) 4 (1.6)   5 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 5 (3.3)  
  Unchecked or unknown 21 (1.9) 18 (2.2) 3 (1.1)   4 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 4 (2.6)  
Exposure history, n (%)
 Huanan seafood market 126 (11.9) 96 (11.8) 30 (12.2) 0.8499 35 (10.5) 29 (15.7) 6 (4.1) 0.0006
 Wuhan exposure 1032 (94.3) 788 (94.0) 244 (95.3) 0.4385 331 (96.2) 180 (94.7) 151 (98.1) 0.1089
 Other parts of Hubei 55 (5.2) 44 (5.4) 11 (4.6) 0.6121 12 (3.8) 10 (5.7) 2 (1.4) 0.0458
 Contact with wildlife 17 (1.6) 10 (1.2) 7 (3.0) 0.1169 7 (2.2) 7 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0.0404
 Medical staff 16 (1.5) 16 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 0.0608 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1
 Clustered cases 125 (11.5) 88 (10.6) 37 (14.5) 0.1597 44 (12.8) 30 (15.8) 14 (9.2) 0.1736
Any comorbidity, n (%) 383 (34.8) 265 (31.5) 118 (45.2) < 0.0001 176 (50.4) 80 (41.7) 96 (61.2) 0.0003
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 18 (1.7) 9 (1.1) 9 (3.6) 0.2117 13 (3.8) 5 (2.7) 8 (5.3) 1
 Diabetes 124 (11.4) 82 (9.8) 42 (16.5) 0.0033 62 (18.1) 23 (12.2) 39 (25.5) 0.0015
 Hypertension 265 (24.3) 189 (22.6) 76 (29.7) 0.0208 119 (34.7) 55 (29.0) 64 (41.8) 0.0127
 Chronic cardiac disease 70 (6.4) 49 (5.9) 21 (8.2) 0.1823 37 (10.8) 12 (6.3) 25 (16.3) 0.0029
 Chronic kidney disease 29 (2.7) 20 (2.4) 9 (3.5) 0.3326 10 (2.9) 4 (2.1) 6 (3.9) 0.5022
 Chronic liver disease 37 (3.4) 28 (3.4) 9 (3.5) 0.9165 12 (3.5) 4 (2.1) 8 (5.2) 0.1132
 Stroke 36 (3.3) 18 (2.2) 18 (7.3) 0.0001 21 (6.1) 10 (5.3) 11 (7.2) 0.4595
 Malignancy 29 (2.7) 17 (2.0) 12 (4.7) 0.0214 17 (5.0) 9 (4.7) 8 (5.2) 0.8347
 Immunosuppression 19 (1.8) 7 (0.8) 12 (4.7) 0.0001 17 (5.0) 8 (4.2) 9 (5.9) 0.4695
 Tuberculosis 14 (1.3) 8 (1.0) 6 (2.4) 0.1589 7 (2.1) 2 (1.1) 5 (3.3) 0.2858
Signs and symptoms at admission, n (%)
 Fever 889 (81.0) 671 (80.0) 218 (84.2) 0.1329 300 (86.7) 163 (84.9) 137 (89.0) 0.2684
 Median highest temperature (IQR) °C 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 38.4 (38.0, 39.0) 38.55 (38.0, 39.0) 0.4549 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 38.5 (38.0, 39.0) 0.0554
 Nasal congestion 11 (1.0) 5 (0.6) 6 (2.3) 1 6 (1.7) 3 (1.6) 3 (2.0) 1
 Nasal discharges 16 (1.5) 10 (1.2) 6 (2.3) 0.309 6 (1.7) 3 (1.6) 3 (2.0) 1
 Sneeze 5 (0.5) 2 (0.2) 3 (1.2) 0.1646 3 (0.9) 2 (1.0) 1 (0.7) 1
 Sore throat 36 (3.3) 31 (3.7) 5 (1.9) 0.1611 8 (2.3) 5 (2.6) 3 (2.0) 0.9725
 Cough 810 (73.8) 600 (71.4) 210 (81.4) 0.0015 279 (80.9) 151 (78.7) 128 (83.7) 0.2394
 Sputum production 391 (35.6) 282 (33.6) 109 (42.3) 0.0113 135 (39.1) 70 (36.5) 65 (42.5) 0.2546
 Dyspnoea 488 (44.5) 333 (39.7) 155 (60.1) < 0.0001 215 (62.3) 106 (55.2) 109 (71.2) 0.0023
 Chest pain 57 (5.2) 46 (5.5) 11 (4.3) 0.4294 16 (4.6) 10 (5.2) 6 (3.9) 0.5723
 Hemoptysis 11 (1.0) 8 (1.0) 3 (1.2) 1 6 (1.7) 3 (1.6) 3 (2.0) 1
 Headache 60 (5.5) 52 (6.3) 8 (3.1) 0.0527 9 (2.6) 7 (3.7) 2 (1.3) 0.3106
 Myalgia 126 (11.6) 88 (10.6) 38 (14.7) 0.0684 45 (13.0) 28 (14.6) 17 (11.1) 0.3414
 Fatigue 397 (36.3) 298 (35.6) 99 (38.5) 0.3878 136 (39.5) 71 (37.2) 65 (42.5) 0.3167
 Gastrointestinal symptoms 200 (18.3) 163 (19.5) 37 (14.3) 0.059 51 (14.8) 26 (13.5) 25 (16.3) 0.4669
 Eye symptoms 23 (2.1) 16 (1.9) 7 (2.7) 0.442 7 (2.0) 6 (3.1) 1 (0.7) 0.2175
 Rhonchi 51 (4.6) 33 (3.9) 18 (7.0) 0.0438 24 (6.9) 14 (7.3) 10 (6.5) 0.7715
 Crackles 150 (13.7) 111 (13.2) 39 (15.1) 0.454 59 (17.1) 32 (16.7) 27 (17.5) 0.8315
Systolic pressure
 Median (IQR), mmHg 122 (110, 134) 121 (110, 133) 123 (112, 136) 0.2233 126 (115, 139) 123 (112, 136) 130.5 (117, 144) 0.0201
Diastolic pressure
 Median (IQR), mmHg 80 (72, 87) 80 (72, 88) 80 (72, 87) 0.173 80 (73, 87) 80 (75, 87) 80 (72, 87) 0.2204
Heart rate
 Median (IQR), bpm 86 (79, 96) 85 (78, 95) 89 (80, 100) 0.0002 89 (80, 100) 88 (80, 98) 89 (82, 102) 0.1859
Respiratory rate
 Median (IQR), bpm 21 (20, 25) 21 (20, 24) 22 (20, 26) 0.3707 23 (20, 28) 22 (20, 28) 23 (20, 28) 0.2702
SOFA 2 (1, 5) 2 (0, 14) 4 (2, 8) < 0.0001 5 (3, 10) 3 (2, 5) 10 (6, 18) < 0.0001
APACHEII 3 (1, 5) 3 (1, 5) 5 (3, 8) < 0.0001 6 (3, 10) 5 (2, 7) 10.5 (8, 17) < 0.0001
Laboratory findings
Leucocytes- (IQR-109/L) 6.1 (4.5, 8.5) 5.8 (4.5, 7.8) 8.1 (5.0, 13.6) < 0.0001 9.4 (5.8, 15.6) 7.3 (4.8, 10.2) 15.5 (8.9, 21.9) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)         
 <4 180 (16.8) 145 (17.5) 35 (14.4) < 0.0001 40 (12.3) 26 (14.0) 14 (10.0) < 0.0001
 4–10 707 (66.0) 593 (71.6) 114 (46.7)   133 (40.9) 109 (58.6) 24 (17.3)  
 >10 185 (17.2) 90 (10.9) 95 (38.9)   152 (46.8) 51 (27.4) 101 (72.7)  
Hemoglobin (IQR-g/L) 121 (110.0, 131.0) 121 (110.0, 130.0) 119 (108.0, 131.0) 0.1872 118 (107.0, 130.0) 116.5 (108.0, 129.0) 120 (103.0, 133.0) 0.5845
Distribution, n (%)
 ≤ 90 47 (4.4) 27 (3.3) 20 (8.3) 0.0008 27 (8.5) 10 (5.4) 17 (12.8) 0.0191
 >90 1021 (95.6) 800 (96.7) 221 (91.7)   292 (91.5) 176 (94.6) 116 (87.2)  
Platelets (IQR-109/L) 196 (147.0, 253.0) 204 (159.0, 260.0) 153 (105.0, 216.0) < 0.0001 151.5 (90.5, 208.0) 179.5 (140.0, 241.0) 90.5 (50.0, 165.0) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 <100 91 (8.5) 34 (4.1) 57 (23.5) < 0.0001 88 (27.2) 15 (8.1) 73 (52.9) < 0.0001
 ≥ 100 979 (91.5) 793 (95.9) 186 (76.5)   236 (72.8) 171 (91.9) 65 (47.1)  
Neutrophils (IQR-109/L) 4.2 (2.8, 6.6) 3.8 (2.7, 5.7) 7.0 (3.6, 13.3) < 0.0001 8.3 (4.6, 15.1) 5.6 (3.3, 9.1) 14.7 (9.9, 20.3) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 < 1.8 65 (6.2) 57 (6.9) 8 (3.4) < 0.0001 8 (2.6) 4 (2.3) 4 (3.1) < 0.0001
 1.8–6.3 703 (66.5) 606 (73.5) 97 (41.6)   109 (35.5) 96 (54.5) 13 (9.9)  
 > 6.3 289 (27.3) 161 (19.6) 128 (55.0)   190 (61.9) 76 (43.2) 114 (87.0)  
Lymphocytes (IQR-109/L) 1.2 (0.8, 1.6) 1.3 (0.9, 1.7) 0.8 (0.5, 1.3) < 0.0001 0.8 (0.4, 1.2) 1.0 (0.6, 1.4) 0.5 (0.3, 0.9) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 < 0.8 269 (25.6) 154 (18.8) 115 (49.6) < 0.0001 161 (53.0) 67 (38.3) 94 (72.9) < 0.0001
 ≥ 0.8 783 (74.4) 666 (81.2) 117 (50.4)   143 (47.0) 108 (61.7) 35 (27.1)  
 CD3 (IQR-/μL) 626 (445, 964) 710 (470, 1132) 522 (367, 636.) < 0.0001 522 (364, 659) 562 (427, 793) 367 (267, 409) 0.0004
 CD4 (IQR-/μL) 368 (252, 612) 416 (283, 730) 292 (207, 432) 0.0006 289 (185, 432) 353 (261, 489) 211 (145, 248) 0.0003
 CD8 (IQR-/μL) 237 (139, 337) 269 (188, 400) 155 (114, 252) <  0.0001 155 (116, 252) 207 (128, 288) 129 (87, 144) 0.0044
 Prothrombin time (IQR-s) 11.4 (10.7, 12.4) 11.3 (10.6, 12.2) 11.9 (11.1, 13.4) < 0.0001 12.4 (11.3, 13.9) 11.6 (10.0, 12.6) 14 (12.4, 17.5) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 <10.5 198 (19.1) 163 (20.4) 35 (14.7) < 0.0001 38 (11.9) 34 (18.4) 4 (3.0) < 0.0001
 10.5–13.5 726 (70.0) 580 (72.6) 146 (61.3)   183 (57.4) 131 (70.8) 52 (38.8)  
 >13.5 113 (10.9) 56 (7.0) 57 (24.0)   98 (30.7) 20 (10.8) 78 (58.2)  
Activated-partial thromboplastin time (IQR-s) 27.6 (24.3, 32.2) 27 (23.9, 31.1) 29.9 (25.7, 35.8) < 0.0001 30 (25.0, 35.8) 29 (24.7, 34.3) 33.4 (26.1, 38.9) 0.0006
Distribution, n (%)
 <21 64 (6.2) 47 (5.9) 17 (7.3) < 0.0001 21 (6.7) 14 (7.7) 7 (5.4) < 0.0001
 21–37 870 (84.2) 699 (87.5) 171 (73.1)   228 (73.1) 148 (80.9) 80 (62.0)  
 >37 99 (9.6) 53 (6.6) 46 (19.6)   63 (20.1) 21 (11.4) 42 (32.6)  
Thrombin time (IQR-s) 17.8 (16.7, 20.6) 17.7 (16.7, 20.0) 18.4 (17.1, 22.4) < 0.0001 18.4 (17.1, 21.7) 18.3 (17.1, 21.3) 18.4 (17.1, 23.0) 0.5313
Distribution, n (%)
 <13 8 (0.8) 8 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 0.0044 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.4132
 13–21 782 (75.7) 618 (77.4) 164 (70.1)   224 (72.0) 135 (73.8) 89 (69.5)  
 >21 243 (23.5) 173 (21.6) 70 (29.9)   87 (28.0) 48 (26.2) 39 (30.5)  
 D-dimer (IQR-μg/mL) 0.8 (0.4, 1.9) 0.74 (0.4, 1.4) 1.38 (0.5, 9.4) < 0.0001 2.21 (0.7, 18.1) 0.95 (0.5, 2.8) 17.83 (4.5, 56.5) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 ≤ 0.5 322 (31.9) 268 (34.5) 54 (23.2) < 0.0001 55 (17.5) 51 (27.9) 4 (3.1) < 0.0001
0.5–1 271 (26.8) 227 (29.2) 44 (18.9)   52 (16.6) 43 (23.5) 9 (6.9)  
 >1 417 (41.3) 282 (36.3) 135 (57.9)   207 (65.9) 89 (48.6) 118 (90.0)  
 Total bilirubin (IQR-μmol/L) 12.7 (9.9, 17.0) 12.1 (9.6, 15.6) 16 (11.7, 24.9) < 0.0001 16.7 (11.9, 26.4) 14.05 (11.0, 18.4) 24.9 (16.6, 36.1) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 ≤ 26 954 (91.8) 777 (95.8) 177 (77.6) < 0.0001 228 (74.5) 155 (90.1) 73 (54.5) < 0.0001
 >26 85 (8.2) 34 (4.2) 51 (22.4)   78 (25.5) 17 (9.9) 61 (45.5)  
 Alanine aminotransferase ( (IQR-U/L) 41.5 (25.0, 64.0) 38 (23.0, 60.0) 51 (34.0, 83.0) < 0.0001 50 (32.0, 79.0) 50 (33.0, 75.0) 47 (31.0, 84.0) 0.7016
Distribution, n (%)
 ≤ 40 524 (49.2) 436 (52.9) 88 (36.5) < 0.0001 123 (38.3) 72 (38.7) 51 (37.8) 0.8654
 >40 542 (50.8) 389 (47.1) 153 (63.5)   198 (61.7) 114 (61.3) 84 (62.2)  
Aspartate aminotransferase (IQR-U/L) 34 (26.0, 49.0) 31 (24.0, 44.0) 46.5 (34.0, 72.0) < 0.0001 48 (35.0, 74.0) 40 (31.0, 57.0) 58 (44.0, 109.0) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 ≤ 40 679 (63.7) 584 (70.9) 95 (39.3) < 0.0001 118 (36.5) 96 (51.6) 22 (16.1) < 0.0001
 >40 387 (36.3) 240 (29.1) 147 (60.7)   205 (63.5) 90 (48.4) 115 (83.9)  
 Albumin (IQR-g/L) 31.7 (28.5, 35.0) 32.4 (29.6, 35.7) 28.3 (26.0, 31.5) < 0.0001 28 (25.5, 30.7) 29.5 (27.4, 32.3) 26.2 (24.3, 28.3) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 <40 1024 (95.9) 780 (94.7) 244 (100.0) 0.0003 326 (100.0) 186 (100.0) 140 (100.0) 1
 40–55 41 (3.8) 41 (5.0) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 >55 3 (0.3) 3 (0.3) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Blood urea nitrogen (IQR-mmol/L) 5 (4.0, 6.4) 4.8 (3.8, 5.8) 6.5 (5.0, 10.2) < 0.0001 7.2 (5.4, 11.7) 6.1 (4.7, 7.7) 13.2 (7.7, 20.3) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 <3.1 81 (7.6) 74 (9.0) 7 (2.9) < 0.0001 7 (2.2) 7 (3.8) 0 (0.0) < 0.0001
 3.1–8 838 (78.6) 688 (83.6) 150 (61.7)   177 (55.5) 139 (75.1) 38 (28.4)  
 >8 147 (13.8) 61 (7.4) 86 (35.4)   135 (42.3) 39 (21.1) 96 (71.6)  
 Serum creatinine (IQR-umol/L) 72.4 (59.4, 87.2) 70.9 (59.0, 83.0) 78.8 (62.5, 104.0) < 0.0001 79.6 (63.0, 109.8) 73.9 (59.5, 91.6) 107.8 (69.2, 196.7) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 >133 65 (6.1) 24 (2.9) 41 (16.9) < 0.0001 60 (18.9) 8 (4.3) 52 (39.4) < 0.0001
 ≤ 133 995 (93.9) 794 (97.1) 201 (83.1)   257 (81.1) 177 (95.7) 80 (60.6)  
 Creatine kinase (IQR-U/L) 76 (50.0, 141.0) 71 (49.0, 123.0) 123 (54.0, 247.0) < 0.0001 124.5 (55.5, 274.5) 89 (48.0, 196.0) 240 (101.0, 553.0) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 <50 235 (24.4) 190 (25.2) 45 (21.5) < 0.0001 53 (19.5) 46 (27.7) 7 (6.6) < 0.0001
 50–310 640 (66.5) 517 (68.6) 123 (58.9)   159 (58.4) 102 (61.5) 57 (53.8)  
 >310 88 (9.1) 47 (6.2) 41 (19.6)   60 (22.1) 18 (10.8) 42 (39.6)  
 Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (IQR-U/L) 13 (10.0, 17.0) 13 (10.0, 16.0) 17 (13.0, 24.0) < 0.0001 18 (14.0, 27.0) 15 (12.0, 20.0) 24 (18.0, 47.0) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)         
 ≤ 24 921 (90.8) 747 (95.3) 174 (75.7) < 0.0001 213 (70.5) 149 (84.7) 64 (50.8) < 0.0001
 >24 93 (9.2) 37 (4.7) 56 (24.3)   89 (29.5) 27 (15.3) 62 (49.2)  
Serum prealbumin (IQR-g/L) 132 (85.0, 191.0) 144 (98.0, 201.0) 86 (48.0, 132.0) < 0.0001 78 (44.5, 122.5) 105.5 (70.5, 152.5) 48.5 (29.5, 75.0) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)
 <200 799 (77.9) 588 (74.0) 211 (91.3) < 0.0001 286 (92.9) 160 (88.9) 126 (98.4) 0.0013
 200–430 227 (22.1) 207 (26.0) 20 (8.7)   22 (7.1) 20 (11.1) 2 (1.6)  
 Serum amyloid protein A (IQR-mg/L) 186 (28.9, 272.3) 151.6 (20.6, 259.1) 242.4 (177.4, 284.0) < 0.0001 246.45 (180.4, 284.0) 241.2 (132.4, 284.0) 260.1 (188.9, 284.0) 0.0103
Distribution, n (%)         
 ≤ 10 150 (16.9) 140 (20.0) 10 (5.4) < 0.0001 11 (4.3) 9 (6.0) 2 (1.9) 0.2075
 >10 737 (83.1) 560 (80.0) 177 (94.6)   245 (95.7) 142 (94.0) 103 (98.1)  
C-reactive-protein (IQR-mg/L) 25.6 (4.9, 79.1) 18.4 (3.8, 54.4) 86.25 (22.3, 160.0) < 0.0001 102.5 (37.6, 160.0) 52.4 (12.1, 103.0) 160 (124.2, 177.1) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)         
 ≤ 6.9 287 (30.2) 259 (35.4) 28 (12.8) < 0.0001 31 (10.7) 28 (17.4) 3 (2.3) < 0.0001
 >6.9 663 (69.8) 473 (64.6) 190 (87.2)   258 (89.3) 133 (82.6) 125 (97.7)  
Serum ferritin (IQR-ng/mL) 377.72 (133.72, 723.96) 344.66 (136.53, 625.70) 557.58 (79.26, 1264.47) 0.0002 618.13 (150.31, 1503.90) 647.98 (245.35, 1193.72) 616.55 (38.68, 2000.00) 0.8666
Distribution, n (%)         
 <21.8 35 (5.0) 27 (5.2) 8 (4.4) 0.0931 9 (3.6) 5 (3.6) 4 (3.6) 0.1069
 21.8-274.6 247 (35.1) 192 (36.9) 55 (30.0)   71 (28.5) 32 (23.4) 39 (34.8)  
 > 274.6 421 (59.9) 301 (57.9) 120 (65.6)   169 (67.9) 100 (73.0) 69 (61.6)  
Interleukin-6 (IQR-pg/mL) 14.0 (7.8, 398.8) 14.6 (7.8, 354.4) 13.3 (8.0, 648.4) 0.1783 13.9 (8.4, 660.9) 10.5 (7.2, 458.0) 31.9 (11.1, 1487.0) < 0.0001
Distribution, n (%)         
 ≤ 7 28 (3.7) 20 (3.4) 8 (4.6) 0.4741 8 (3.4) 5 (4.0) 3 (2.8) 0.8896
 > 7 729 (96.3) 563 (96.6) 166 (95.4)   226 (96.6) 121 (96.0) 105 (97.2)  
Radiologic findings         
 Abnormalities, n (%)         
 Ground-glass opacity 958 (92.3) 734 (91.9) 224 (93.7) 0.3444 293 (93.3) 176 (94.1) 117 (92.1) 0.4881
 Pulmonary consolidation 171 (16.5) 106 (13.3) 65 (27.2) < 0.0001 88 (28.0) 49 (26.2) 39 (30.7) 0.383
 Pulmonary interstitial abnormalities 646 (62.3) 471 (59.0) 175 (73.2) < 0.0001 229 (72.9) 138 (73.8) 91 (71.7) 0.6749
 Pneumothorax 26 (2.5) 18 (2.3) 8 (3.4) 0.3437 13 (4.1) 6 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 0.3147
 Pleural effusion 44 (4.2) 33 (4.1) 11 (4.6) 0.7505 16 (5.1) 10 (5.4) 6 (4.7) 0.8053
  1. SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHEII Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II