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Table 3 Comparison of baseline characteristics according to existence of gasping during transportation by EMS

From: Gasping during refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a prognostic marker for favourable neurological outcome following extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a retrospective study

Variables Univariate analysis IPTW
Gasping during transportation
n = 38
No gasping during transportation
n = 128
P value Std Dif Std Dif
Age (y) 61.0 (52.0, 70.8) 59.5 (47.3, 69.0) 0.435 0.172 0.052
Male sex, n (%) 28 (73.7) 100 (78.1) 0.660 0.104 0.034
Cardiac arrest witnessed, n (%) 34 (89.5) 78 (60.9) 0.001 0.700 0.341
Bystander CPR attempt, n (%) 28 (73.7) 60 (46.9) 0.005 0.570 0.095
Initial recorded cardiac arrest rhythm, n (%)    0.002   
 VF or pulseless VT 22 (57.9) 89 (69.5)   0.244 0.363
 Pulseless electrical activity 14 (36.8) 16 (12.5)   0.589 0.492
 Asystole 2 (5.3) 23 (18.0)  
Aetiology of CA, n (%)    1.000   
 Cardiac, n (%) 30 (78.9) 101 (78.9)   0.001 0.014
 No cardiac, n (%) 8 (21.1) 27 (21.1)    
  Pulmonary embolism 1 2    
  Subarachnoid haemorrhage 0 3    
  Accidental hypothermia 3 11    
  Acute aortic dissection 1 2    
  Respiratory disease      
   Pneumonia 0 1    
   Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1 0    
   Asthma 1 0    
   Other 1 8    
Epinephrine administration from EMS, mg 1.0 (0.0, 2.0) 2.0 (0.0, 3.0) 0.025 0.443 0.083
Cardiac rhythm at admission    0.009   
 ROSC 5 (13.2) 5 (3.9)   0.336 0.016
 VF or pulseless VT 17 (44.7) 61 (47.7)   0.059 0.198
 Pulseless electrical activity 15 (39.5) 37 (28.9)   0.224 0.544
 Asystole 1 (2.6) 25 (19.5)  
Low-flow duration, min 40.5 (29.5, 51.3) 46.0 (37.0, 54.0) 0.049 0.397 0.130
No-flow duration, mina 0.0 (0.0, 5.0), n = 35b 6.0 (0.0, 10.0), n = 82b 0.002 0.586 0.012
pH at admission, n = 162b 6.914 (6.814, 7.012), n = 37 6.914 (6.815, 7.019), n = 125 0.795 0.104 0.128
Serum lactate at admission, n = 158b 13.8 (9.5, 16.0), n = 36 12.7 (10.8, 15.1), n = 122 0.435 0.217 0.036
Epinephrine administration after admission, mg 1.0 (0.0, 3.0) 1.0 (0.0, 2.0) 0.841 0.029 0.054
Intra-aortic balloon pumping, n (%) 29 (76.3) 86 (67.7) 0.421 0.204 0.138
Percutaneous coronary intervention, n (%) 16 (42.1) 62 (48.8) 0.579 0.127 0.280
Therapeutic temperature management, n (%) 26 (68.4) 84 (66.1) 0.847 0.060 0.192
Outcomes
 Survival discharge, n (%) 23 (60.5) 44 (34.4) 0.005   
 CPC score 1–2 at hospital discharge, n (%) 20 (52.6) 14 (10.9) < 0.001   
  1. IPTW inverse probability treatment weighting, EMS emergency medical service, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, CPC cerebral performance category, Std Dif standardised difference
  2. aNo-flow time could be basically calculated in patients with cardiac arrest witnessed and some un-witnessed cardiac arrest patients could be estimated no-flow time by relatives and/or bystanders. Accordingly, the number of patients with no-flow was less than 166
  3. bThe number was less than 166 due to insufficient data