Skip to main content

Table 4 Characteristics and measurements of diaphragm and expiratory muscles for patients with successful and failed extubation

From: The impact of critical illness on the expiratory muscles and the diaphragm assessed by ultrasound in mechanical ventilated children

  Successful extubation (n = 31) Failed extubation (n = 3) P value
Clinical characteristics
 Age, months 4.0 (1–25) 15 (13–15) 0.142
 Body weight, kg 6.0 (4.3–13.5) 8.9 (8.0–8.9) 0.261
 Duration of MV, h 103 (67–154) 268 (120–268) 0.073
 Ventilator settingsa
  Peak-PEEP, cmH2O 15 (12–20) 15 (12.7–15) 0.855
  Tidal volume, ml/kg 6.6 (6.0–7.3) 6.4 (5.8–6.4) 0.524
Diaphragm
 Baseline thickness 1.4 (1.0–1.6) 1.6 (1.0–1.6) 0.693
 Change in thickness (% of baseline) 10.7 (9.5–14.4) 12.5 (12.1–12.5) 0.785
 Average TFdi (first 4 days) − 5.96 (− 20.4–10.6) − 12.4 (− 21.9–− 12.4) 0.237
 TFdi before extubation 15.2 (9.6–19.1) 4.0 (0–4.0) 0.108
Expiratory muscles (OE, OI, TA)
 Baseline thickness 4.2 (3.6–5.3) 4.2 (3.5–4.2) 0.649
 Change in thickness (% of baseline) − 3.89 (− 16.6–9.5) − 33.8 (− 43–− 33.8) 0.014
 Average TF (first 4 days) 5.38 (2.8–6.8) 3.46 (2.0–3.46) 0.236
 TF before extubation 6.5 (1.9–10.6) 3.5 (0–3.5) 0.395
Rectus abdominis (RA)
 Baseline thickness 1.9 (1.6–2.3) 1.6 (1.2–1.6) 0.485
 Change in thickness (% of baseline) 8.12 (–0.9–22.6) 0.54 (–16.8–0.54) 0.564
 Average TF (first 4 days) 2.33 (1.7–4.1) 2.5 (0.6–2.50) 0.785
 TF before extubation 1.3 (0–4.2) 1.4 (0–1.4) 0.975
  1. Results are presented as median [IQR]; successful extubation group (Q1–Q3) and failed extubation group (Q1–Q2)
  2. IQR, interquartile range, TF, thickening fraction; TFdi, thickening fraction diaphragm at end-inspiration
  3. OE, m. obliquus externa; OI, m. obliquus interna; TA, m. transversus abdominis; RA, m. rectus abdominis
  4. aThe ventilation settings are shown as an average over the first 4 days of mechanical ventilation