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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes

From: Epidural analgesia in ICU chest trauma patients with fractured ribs: retrospective study of pain control and intubation requirements

  974 patients Missing data
Demographic variables at baseline
 Age, years, mean ± SD 57 ± 17 10
 Males, n (%) 744/971 (76.6%) 3
 Comorbidities, n (%)
 McCabe score   57
  (0) No fatal underlying disease 812/917 (88.5%)  
  (1) Death expected within 5 years 96/917 (10.5%)  
  (2) Death expected within 1 year 9/917 (1%)  
 History of respiratory disease 130/969 (13.4%) 5
  COPD 68/119 (57%) 11
  Obstructive sleep apnea 31/108 (28.7%) 22
  Asthma 25/111 (22.5%) 19
  Pulmonary fibrosis 6/105 (5.7%) 25
  Lung cancer 2/108 (1.8%) 22
  Other 16/109 (14.6%) 21
 History of alcohol abuse 173/948 (18.2%) 26
 History of smoking 342/930 (36.7%) 44
 Obesity (BMI ≥ 30) 132/956 (13.8%) 18
Characteristics of the injury
 Number of fractured ribs, mean ± SD 6 ± 3 7
 Flail chest, n (%) 245/957 (25.6%) 17
 Isolated chest trauma, n (%) 276/971 (28.4%) 3
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ICU admissiona 320 [254–390] 25
 SAPS II, mean ± SD 22 ± 11 26
 Injury Severity Score, mean ± SD 18 ± 7 0
  Thoracic AIS ≥ 3, n (%) 928 (5.3%) 0
  Head AIS ≥ 3, n (%) 82 (8.5%) 6
  Abdominal AIS ≥ 3, n (%) 97 (10.0%) 7
  Face AIS ≥ 3, n (%) 1 (0.10%) 9
  Extremity AIS ≥ 3, n (%) 82 (8.66%) 4
  External AIS ≥ 3, n (%) 0 (0%) 12
 Time from injury to hospital admission, days, median [IQR] 0 [0–0] 3
 Time from injury to ICU admission, days, median [IQR] 0 [0–1] 7
Outcome
 IMV, n (%) 128/974 (13.1%)  
  Time from hospital admission to IMV, days, median [IQR] 2 [1–4] 1
  Reason for IMV (some patients had more than one reason)
   Acute respiratory failure 99  
   Acute circulatory failure 10  
  Acute neurologic disorder 14  
   Emergency surgery 21  
  Time from ICU admission to IMV, days, median [IQR] 2 [1–3] 1
  IMV duration, days, median [IQR] 8 [3–14] 3
 Bilevel NIV, n (%) 268/961 (27.9%) 13
  Reason for NIV   13
   Hypercapnia 82 (32.1%)  
   Hypoxemia 165 (64.8%)  
   Prophylactic 8 (3.1%)  
  NIV duration, days, median [IQR] 3 [1–4]  
 Chest tube insertion, n (%) 429/948 (45.2%) 26
  Hemothorax 146/425 (34%) 4
  Pneumothorax 159/425 (37%) 4
  Hemothorax and pneumothorax 119/425 (28%) 4
  Surgery 1/425 (0.2%) 4
 Surgical stabilization of ribs, n (%) 44/962(4.5%) 12
 Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, n (%) 46/956 (4.8%) 18
 Infection, n (%)
  Early-onset pneumonia (within 48 h after ICU admission) 89/954 (9.3%) 20
  Nosocomial pneumonia (> 48 h after ICU admission) 89/912 (9.8%)b 26
 ICU stay length, median [IQR] 5 [3–9] 6
 Length of hospital stay (median, IQR) 11 [7–18] 19
 ICU mortality (N, %) 31/965 (3.2%) 9
 Hospital mortality (N %) 37/958 (3.8%) 16
  1. MD missing data, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI body mass index, IQR interquartile range, IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiologic Score II, ICU intensive care unit, NIV noninvasive ventilation
  2. a PaO2/FiO2 was not collected but was derived from SpO2 at ICU admission and the oxygen flow rate
  3. b 36 patients died or were discharged within 48 h after ICU admission