Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV); patients who received IMV for emergent surgery, with contraindication for EA, refused EA, failed catheter insertion, missing data about EA were excluded

From: Epidural analgesia in ICU chest trauma patients with fractured ribs: retrospective study of pain control and intubation requirements

  IMV (N = 65) No IMV (N = 723) HR (95% CI) P value
Patient characteristics
 Age, years, mean ± SD 62 ± 15 55 ± 17 1.02 (1.01–1.04) 0.020
 Chronic respiratory disease, n (%) 23/65 (35.4%) 74/718 (10.3%) 3.98 (2.39–6.61) < 0.001
 Obesity (BMI > 30), n (%) 12/64 (18.7%) 96/710 (13.5%) 1.38 (0.72–2.61) 0.33
 History of smoking, n (%) 32/64 (50.0%) 239/692 (34.5%) 1.91 (1.17–3.10) 0.009
Alcohol, n (%) < 0.001*
 No chronic alcoholism 43/64 (67.2%) 589/699 (84.3%) 1 (reference)  
 Alcohol abuse without alcohol withdrawal syndrome 10/64 (15.6%) 89/699 (12.7%) 1.64 (0.83–3.27)  
 Alcohol abuse with alcohol withdrawal syndrome 12/64 (17.2%) 21/699 (3.0%) 5.14 (2.54–10.4)  
Injury characteristics
 Thoracic AIS, mean ± SD 3.8 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.6 2.02 (1.18–3.47) 0.01
 ISS, mean ± SD 21 ± 8 18 ± 7 1.05 (1.01–1.08) 0.006
 Flail chest, n (%) 28/65 (43.1%) 172/712 (24.2%) 2.01 (1.24–3.28) 0.005
 ≥ 6 fractured ribs, n (%) 36/64 (56.2%) 363/721 (50.3%) 1.13 (0.68–1.86) 0.64
 SAPS II, mean ± SD 30.6 ± 14b 20 ± 9c 1.08 (1.06–1.09) < 0.001
Clinical variables
 Oxygen saturation at ICU admission, %, mean ± SD 95 ± 4 96 ± 5d 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.03
 Respiratory rate at ICU admission, breaths/min, mean ± SD 23.0 ± 6.8e 20.4 ± 5.5f 1.07 (1.03–1.12) 0.002
 Oxygen flow > 6 L/min at ICU admission, n (%) 28/64 (43.7%) 126/712 (17.7%) 3.08 (1.87–5.05) < 0.001
 Median NRS pain score on day 1 > 4 31/61 (50.8%) 272/701 (38.8%) 1.49 (0.91–2.43) 0.12
Treatment
 Epidural analgesia, n (%) 12/65 (18.5%) 118/723 (16.3%) 0.83 (0.43–1.57) 0.56
 Noninvasive ventilation, n (%) 36/64 (56.2%) 168/712 (23.6%) 3.05 (1.88–4.97) 0.005
  1. Where the available number of patients with data is not specified, all patients in the group had available data
  2. BMI body mass index, AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale, ISS Injury Severity Score, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score version II, NRS numerical rating scale
  3. a Available for 715/723 patients
  4. b Available for 63/65 patients
  5. c Available for 707/723 patients
  6. d Available for 713/723 patients
  7. e Available for 58/65 patients
  8. f Available for 700/723 patients
  9. * Global value