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Table 4 Multivariate analysis to identify risk factors associated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in the 695 patients with no contraindications to, refusal of, or failure of catheter insertion for epidural analgesia

From: Epidural analgesia in ICU chest trauma patients with fractured ribs: retrospective study of pain control and intubation requirements

  aHR 95% CI P value
History of chronic respiratory disease 2.38 1.25–4.52 0.008
SAPS II 1.07 1.04–1.09 < 0.0001
Flail chest 2.00 1.13–3.52 0.02
ISS 1.08 1.04–1.12 < 0.0001
Respiratory rate, breaths/min 1.06 1.01–1.12 0.02
Epidural analgesia 0.52 0.25–1.08 0.08
Noninvasive ventilation 1.84 1.02–3.33 0.04
Alcohol
 No alcohol abuse    < 0.0001*
 Alcohol abuse without alcohol withdrawal syndrome 2.82 1.38–5.77 .
 Alcohol abuse with alcohol withdrawal syndrome 7.50 3.61–15.6  
  1. aHR adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score version II, ISS Injury Severity Score
  2. * Global value