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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics according to AKI

From: Acute kidney injury in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection

  Overall No AKI AKI p value
n = 100 n = 19 n = 81
Age (year) 59 [53–67] 54 [45–61] 60 [54–68] 0.05
Male gender 70 (70%) 11 (58%) 59 (73%) 0.32
Absence of underlying comorbidity 15 (15%) 6 (32%) 9 (11%) 0.06
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2 (2%) 0 (0) 2 (3%) 1.00
Asthma 8 (8%) 2 (11%) 6 (8%) 1.00
History of hypertension 56 (56%) 8 (42%) 48 (60%) 0.25
Diabetes 30 (30%) 3 (16%) 27 (34%) 0.21
Immunocompromized 26 (26%) 4 (21%) 22 (28%) 0.78
Heart failure 15 (15%) 0 (0) 15 (19%) 0.09
Chronic kidney disease 29 (29%) 2 (11%) 27 (33%) 0.09
Body Mass Index (Kg/m2) 28 [24–31] 26 [23–31] 28 [24–31] 0.48
Obesity and overweight     0.37
Overweight 25 (25%) 3 (16%) 22 (27%)  
Obese 21 (21%) 3 (16%) 18 (22%)  
Other 54 (54%) 13 (68%) 41 (51%)  
Chronic use of ACE/ARB 30 (30%) 3 (16%) 27 (33%) 0.22
Baseline serum creatinine (µmol/L) 65 [50–93] 63 [48–70] 67 [50–100] 0.22
SOFA score 4 [2–7] 2 [2, 3] 5 [2–7] 0.003
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (%) 1 (1%) 0 (0) 1 (1%) 1.00
Invasive mechanical ventilation 55 (55%) 6 (32%) 49 (61%) 0.04
PEEP at day 1 0 [0–10] 0 [0–4] 8 [0–10] 0.04
Renal replacement therapy 13 (13%) 0 (0) 13 (16%) 0.14
Vasopressors 51 (51%) 7 (37%) 44 (55%) 0.24
IL6 at day 0 (ng/mL) 118 [67–287] 136 [63–292] 113 [69–287] 0.98
C3 at day 0 (ng/mL) 1305 [1173–1550] 1495 [1285, 1630] 1260 [1160–1543] 0.06
C4 at day 0 (ng/mL) 348 [275–418] 351 [282–493] 348 [272–416] 0.69
sC5b9 at day 0 (ng/mL) 373 [270–471] 425 [317–516] 363 [266–450] 0.22
Ferritin at day 0 (mg/L) 1272 [636–2234] 1182 [495–1584] 1311 [695–2322] 0.12
Fibrinogen at day 0 (g/L) 6.8 [5.8–7.8] 7.2 [5.4–7.7] 6.7 [5.8–7.8] 0.94
Acute kidney injury - 81 (81%) 0 (0) 81 (100%)  < 0.001
KDIGO stage      < 0.001
No AKI 19 (19%) 19 (100%) 0 (0)  
Stage 1 44 (44%) 0 (0) 44 (54%)  
Stage 2 10 (10%) 0 (0) 10 (12%)  
Stage 3 27 (27%) 0 (0) 27 (33%)  
KDIGO criteria fulfilled      < 0.001
Creatinine criteria alone 28 (28%) 0 (0) 28 (35%)  
Oliguria alone 33 (33%) 0 (0) 33 (41%)  
Both criteria 20 (20%) 0 (0) 20 (25%)  
None 19 (19%) 19 (100%) 0 (0)  
Day-28 mortality 29 (29%) 1 (5%) 28 (35%) 0.02
Specific treatment during ICU stay     0.35
Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine 3 (3%) 0 (0) 3 (4%)  
Eculizumab 2 (2%) 0 (0) 2 (3%)  
Lopinavir/ritonavir 10 (10%) 0 (0) 10 (12%)  
Tocilizumab 1 (1%) 0 (0) 1 (1%)  
None 84 (84%) 19 (100%) 65 (80%)  
  1. Results are presented as median (interquartile) or n (%)
  2. ACE angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers