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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, behavior during ICU stay, and outcome of 123 HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU for acute respiratory failure, according to the CD4 lymphocyte count on the ICU admission

From: Respiratory virus-associated infections in HIV-infected adults admitted to the intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure: a 6-year bicenter retrospective study (HIV-VIR study)

Patients All patients (n = 123) CD4 ≤ 200 (n = 66) CD4 > 200 (n = 57) p
valuea
Age (year) 51 [43–59] 46 [39–56] 55 [47–59] < 0.01
Sex male 82 (66.7) 40 (60.6) 42 (73.7) 0.12
Smoking 49 (41.2) 24 (38.7) 25 (43.9) 0.57
WHO performance status > 0 61 (50.8) 33 (50.7) 28 (50.9) 0.99
COPD GOLD III–IV 16 (13) 4 (6.1) 12 (21.1) 0.01
Arterial hypertension 32 (26) 13 (19.7) 19 (33.3) 0.09
Coronary heart disease 19 (15.4) 10 (15.2) 9 (15.8) 0.92
Baseline HIV-related characteristics
 Newly diagnosed HIV infection 11 (8.9) 10 (15.2) 1 (1.8) 0.92
 HIV viral load (log)b 0 [0–3.4] 4.7 [1.2–5.4] 0 [0–1.4] < 0.01
 CD4 lymphocyte count (cells/µL)c 351 [140–600] 72 [30–200] 517 [406–715] < 0.01
 ART 88 (72.1) 33 (50.8) 55 (96.5) < 0.01
Steroid therapyd 4 (3.3) 2 (3) 2 (3.5) 0.85
Other immunosuppressive treatments 2 (1.6) 1 (1.5) 1 (1.8) 0.92
Splenectomy 1 (0.8) 0 1 (1.8) 0.28
Cancer or hematologic malignancy 6 (4.9) 1 (1.5) 5 (8.8) 0.06
Chemotherapy 2 (1.6) 1 (1.5) 1 (1.8) 0.92
Organ/bone marrow transplantation (0.8) 1 (1.5) 0 0.35
Transfer from another warde 62 (50.4) 30 (45.5) 32 (56.2) 0.24
SOFA score 4 [2–7] 4 [2–8] 3 [2–6] 0.60
SAPS II score 44 [34–57] 44 [37–57] 41 [31–55] 0.20
Biology on ICU admission
 HIV viral load (log)f 2.5 [0–5.3] 5 [2.9–5.6] 0 [0–2] < 0.01
 CD4 lymphocyte count (cells/µL) 170 [20–430] 29 [10–102] 461[345–533] < 0.01
 Neutrophil count (G/L) 6.7 [3.9–9] 5.5 [2.1–7.6] 7.6 [5.3–12.1] < 0.01
 Procalcitonin (µg/L)g 0.6 [0.2–5.9] 0.6 [0.2–3] 0.5 [0.1–8.3] 0.89
 Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 403 [276–637] 471 [325–675] 327 [233–575] 0.02
Organ supports during ICU stay
 High-flow nasal cannula oxygen 36 (29.2) 24 (36.3) 12 (21) 0.06
 Noninvasive ventilation 30 (24.8) 11 (17.1) 19 (33.3) 0.04
 Mechanical ventilation 43 (35.2) 24 (36.9) 19 (33.3) 0.68
 Vasopressor 36 (29.3) 22 (33.3) 14 (24.6) 0.29
 Renal replacement therapy 23 (18.7) 14 [21.2) 9 (15.8) 0.44
Outcome
 ICU length of stay (day) 7 [4–12] 7 [3.3–16.8] 6 [3–11] 0.21
 Day-28 mortalityh 15 (12.2) 8 (12.1) 7 (12.3) 0.98
 Complicated coursei 30 (24.4) 17 (25.8) 13 (22.8) 0.70
  1. Data are presented as median [first through third quartiles] or number (%). CD4 refers to CD4 lymphocyte count (cells/µL)
  2. HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, ICU Intensive care unit, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiologic Score II, SOFA Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, WHO World Health Organization
  3. a P values refer to differences between Low-CD4 (≤ 200 cells/µL) and High-CD4 (> 200 cells/µL) groups in univariate logistic regression
  4. bData were available for 76 patients
  5. cData were available for 81 patients
  6. d≥ 10 mg of prednisone (or equivalent) per day for more than 30 days
  7. eTransfer from another ward included transfers from another ICU and from the medical wards
  8. fData were available for 101 patients
  9. gData were available for 79 patients
  10. hMortality was defined as death from any cause within 28 days following the ICU admission
  11. iComplicated course was defined as death from any cause within 28 days following the ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation > 7 days