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Table 1 Characteristics of patients

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring ECMO: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Covid-19 patients
(n = 50)
Influenza patients
(n = 45)
Age, ya 48 (42–56) 58 (48–64)
Male sex 36 (72) 28 (62)
Symptom-onset-to-ICU-admission interval, daysa 11 (7–14) 7 (6–10)
Admission SAPS IIa,b 54 (46–65) 71 (59–79)
Admission SOFA scorea,c 12 (10–14) 15 (10–17)
Immunocompromisedd 1 (2) 4 (9)
Documented bacterial coinfectiona 9 (18) 18 (40)
Antimicrobial treatment 50 (100) 45 (100)
Days of antimicrobial treatment 5 (4–6) 4 (2–7)
Antiviral agents   
 Remdesivir 6 (12) 0
 Lopinavir/ritonavir 9 (18) 0
 Hydroxychloroquine 20 (40) 0
 Oseltamivir 0 45 (100)
Patients with at least one VAP episodea 43 (86) 28 (62)
Number of VAP episodes per patienta   
 1 43 (86) 28 (62)
 2 33 (66) 17 (38)
 3 20 (40) 8 (18)
 ≥ 4 11 (22) 3 (7)
Days of ECMO support 21 (10–34) 18 (8–31)
Days on mechanical ventilationa,b 45 (27–62) 24 (14–45)
ICU length of stay, daysa 48 (34–68) 30 (20–53)
ICU mortality rate, days 17 (34) 18 (40)
  1. Results are expressed as median (IQR) or n (%)
  2. Covid coronavirus-infection disease, SAPS II severe acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  3. ap < 0.05
  4. bPossible score, 0 to 163; higher scores indicate greater disease severity; p < 0.0001
  5. cCalculated from six variables obtained the day of admission, taking into account each parameter’s worst values during the 24 h following admission. Scores range from 0 to 24, with higher scores indicating more severe organ failure and higher mortality risk. Patients with a SOFA score = 10 have a 40% to 50% predicted mean chance of survival; p < 0.01
  6. dOne patient with Covid-19 pneumonia had previously undergone renal transplantation. Among influenza-pneumonia patients, two were solid-organ-transplant recipients, one had antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis, and one received chronic steroid therapy for giant-cell vasculitis