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Table 2 Characteristics of first ventilator-associated pneumonia episode

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring ECMO: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Covid-19 patients
(n = 43)
Influenza patients
(n = 28)
Mechanical ventilation days before VAP 10 (8–16) 14 (8–19)
Previous glucocorticoid usea 4 (9) 2 (7)
Previous immunomodulatory drug useb 3 (7) 0
At VAP onset   
 White blood cell count, G/L 13 (10–18) 13 (9–16)
 SARS-CoV-2 loadc 31.9 (28.1–33.7)
 mCPIS 4 (3–5) 4 (3–5)
 SOFA scored 11 (9–13) 9 (5–11)
Pathogen responsible for VAPe   
 Gram-negative pathogens   
  Enterobacteriaceae 30 (70) 11 (39)
   Inducible AmpC Enterobacteriaceaef 17 (40) 7 (25)
    Klebsiella aerogenes 11 (26) 2 (7)
    Enterobacter cloacae 3 (7) 3 (11)
    Hafnia alvei 2 (5) 1 (4)
    Serratia marcescens 1 (2) 0
    Citrobacter freundii 0 (0) 1 (4)
   ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae 2 (5) 0
 Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria 18 (42) 20 (71)
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa 16 (37) 15 (54)
  Acinetobacter spp. 0 1 (4)
  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 2 (5) 3 (11)
 Gram-positive pathogens   
  Staphylococcus aureus 3 (7) 2 (7)
   Methicillin susceptible 1 (2) 2 (7)
   Methicillin resistant 2 (5) 0
  Enterococcus spp. 3 (7) 2 (7)
  Streptococcus spp. 3 (7) 1 (4)
 Polymicrobial VAP 14 (38) 7 (25)
Antimicrobial treatment of VAP   
 Appropriate empiric treatment 35 (81) 19 (68)
 Days of antimicrobial treatment 7 (7–8) 7 (7–7)
  At the end of antimicrobial therapy   
   SOFA score 10 (9–13) 8 (4–13)
   mCPIS 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4)
    Delta mCPIS 0 (− 1 to 1) 1 (0–3)
   Procalcitoninh 0.54 (0.34–1.05) 0.63 (0.23–1.26)
  1. Results are expressed as median (IQR) or n (%)
  2. Covid coronavirus-infectious disease, ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2 severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, SOFA Sequential Organ-Failure Assessment, mCPIS modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, according to Niederman et al. [17]
  3. aAt a dose of ≥ 0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisone or its equivalent during > 1 week
  4. bOne patient each received: tocilizumab, sarilumab, or anakinra
  5. cVirus load expressed as cycle-threshold value on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results were negative for 18 patients, positive but not quantified for three and not done for four
  6. dp = 0.02
  7. eTotal number of pathogens exceeds the number of patients because 21 patients (14 with Covid-19 and 7 with influenza) had ≥ 1 pathogens that grew > 104 cfu/mL
  8. fIncludes Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Providencia stuartii, Klebsiella aerogenes
  9. gDifference between mCPISs at VAP onset and the end of antimicrobial treatment. Available for 39/43 Covid-19 patients and 24/28 with influenza
  10. hData available for 30/43 patients with Covid-19 and 23/28 with influenza
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