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Table 3 Characteristics of recurrent VAP episodes in patients with Covid-19 or influenza ARDS

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring ECMO: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Episode 2 Episode 3 Episode 4
Covid-19 Influenza Covid-19 Influenza Covid-19 Influenza
Number of patients 34 17 20 8 11 3
Relapse 26 (76) 10 (59) 16 (76) 7 (78) 11 (100) 3 (100)
 Days between end of treatment and relapse 2 (1–3) 3 (0–5) 2 (0–4) 3 (0–5) 0 (0–2) 8 (4–8)
 Relapse before end of treatment 6 (23) 3 (30) 7 (44) 2 (29) 6 (55) 0
Superinfection 8 (24) 7 (41) 5 (24) 2 (22) 0 0
 Days between end of treatment and superinfection 4 (0–8) 8 (7–11) 0 (0–0) 35 (23–48)
 Superinfection before end of treatment 3 (38) 0 4 (100) 0
Pathogen responsible for VAP recurrencea       
 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19 (56) 11 (64) 12 (60) 7 (88) 8 (73) 3 (100)
 Enterobacteriaceae 16 (47) 5 (29) 10 (50) 1 (13) 7 (64) 0
  Inducible AmpC Enterobacteriaceaeb 11 (32) 2 (12) 9 (45) 0 6 (55) 0
  ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae 2 (6) 0 0 1 (13) 0 0
  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 2 (6) 0 1 (5) 0 1 (9) 0
  Acinetobacter baumannii 0 1 (6) 0 0 0 0
  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 1 (1) 0 0 0 0 0
  Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus 1 (1) 0 1 (5) 0 0 0
Enterococcus faecalis 1 (1) 0 4 (20) 0 0 0
  1. The results are expressed as n (%) or median (IQR)
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, Covid coronavirus-infection disease, ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
  3. aTotal number of pathogens exceeds the number of patients because patients could have > 1 pathogens growing > 104 cfu/mL
  4. bIncludes Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Providencia stuartii and Klebsiella aerogenes
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