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Table 1 Characteristics of patients admitted to ICU according to ICU grade in Korea, August 2009 to September 2014

From: The effect of bed-to-nurse ratio on hospital mortality of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation: a nationwide population-based study

Characteristics ICU bed-to-nurse gradeb p-value
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 or above
(n = 11,691) (n = 5095) (n = 6797) (n = 4266)
Age, years 6.0 (5.5) 7.4 (6.1) 8.0 (6.1) 10.5 (5.9) < 0.01
Age, year, median (IQR) 4 (0.9, 11) 6 (0.9, 14) 7 (1, 14) 13 (5, 16) < 0.01
Sex, male 6323 (54.1) 3024 (59.4) 4143 (61.0) 2663 (62.4) < 0.01
Type of hospital < 0.01
 Tertiary hospital 10,763 (92.1) 3342 (65.6) 4134 (60.8) 338 (7.9)  
 General hospital 928 (7.9) 1752 (34.4) 2650 (39.0) 3700 (86.7)  
 Hospital 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 13 (0.2) 228 (5.3)  
ICU admission volumea < 0.01
 > 600 per year 2962 (25.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 100–600 per year 8228 (70.4) 1948 (38.2) 1520 (22.4) 28 (0.7)  
 < 100 per year 501 (4.3) 3147 (61.8) 5277 (77.6) 4238 (99.3)  
Region < 0.01
 Capital 10,339 (88.4) 1550 (30.4) 877 (12.9) 750 (17.6)  
 Metropolitan 10 (0.1) 1471 (28.9) 3270 (48.1) 596 (14.0)  
 Province 1342 (11.5) 2074 (40.7) 2650 (39.0) 2920 (68.4)  
Admission department < 0.01
 Surgical 7773 (66.5) 3011 (59.1) 3099 (45.6) 2162 (50.7)  
 Medical 3918 (33.5) 2084 (40.9) 3698 (54.4) 2104 (49.3)  
Primary diagnosis < 0.01
 Congenital anomaly 5268 (45.1) 1724 (33.8) 857 (12.6) 117 (2.7)  
 Injury 314 (2.7) 812 (15.9) 1730 (25.5) 1969 (46.2)  
 Neoplasms 2164 (18.5) 365 (7.2) 405 (6.0) 220 (5.2)  
 Respiratory 560 (4.8) 479 (9.4) 1186 (17.4) 642 (15.0)  
 Neurologic disease 1024 (8.8) 496 (9.7) 671 (9.9) 330 (7.7)  
 Circulatory disease 1107 (9.5) 399 (7.8) 517 (7.6) 156 (3.7)  
 Gastrointestinal disease 287 (2.5) 154 (3.0) 282 (4.1) 255 (6.0)  
 Not elsewhere classified 80 (0.7) 105 (2.1) 360 (5.3) 148 (3.5)  
 Infectious disease 131 (1.1) 130 (2.6) 237 (3.5) 97 (2.3)  
 Others 756 (6.5) 431 (8.5) 552 (8.1) 332 (7.8)  
Interventions for critical care
 Mechanical ventilation 6610 (56.5) 2582 (50.7) 1920 (28.2) 516 (12.1) < 0.01
 Vasopressors 2696 (23.1) 1263 (24.8) 977 (14.4) 315 (7.4) < 0.01
 ECMO 142 (1.2) 53 (1.0) 58 (0.9) 13 (0.3) < 0.01
 Hemodialysis 504 (4.3) 110 (2.2) 105 (1.5) 40 (0.9) < 0.01
 CPR 382 (3.3) 298 (5.8) 404 (5.9) 161 (3.8) < 0.01
  1. Values are median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  2. IQR interquartile range, ICU intensive care unit, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  3. aICU admission volume was calculated as the average annual pediatric admissions to the ICU for 5 years in each hospital
  4. bICU bed-to-nurse grade was defined as bed-to-nurse ratio (Grade 1: < 0.5, Grade 2: < 0.63, Grade 3: < 0.77, and Grade 4 or above: > 0.77)
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