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Table 2 Outcomes in a trial of HDIVC in patients with COVID-19

From: Pilot trial of high-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients

Variable Day Vitamin C (n = 27) Placebo (n = 29) Difference, coefficient (95% CI) P value
IMVFD28, days   26.0[9.0–28.0] 22.0[8.5–28.0] 1.3(− 4.7 to 7.2) 0.57
IMV days to day 28, days   1.5[0.0-19.0] 6.0[0.0–16.0] − 0.8(− 6.4 to 4.9) 0.60
HFNC days to day 28, days   0.5[0.0-8.3] 2.0[0.0 -7.0] 0.2(− 2.9 to 3.3) 0.85
NIV days to day 28, days   0.0[0.0 -3.3] 0.0[0.0-1.8] 1.2(− 1.2 to 3.7) 0.68
Patients’ condition deterioration, n, %   3(11.5) 6(24.0) 0.4(0.1 to 1.7) 0.19
Patients’ condition improvement, n, %   5(19.2) 6(21.4) 0.9(0.2 to 3.3) 0.84
ICU mortality, n, %   6(22.2) 11(37.9) HR 0.5(0.2 to 1.5) 0.20
ICU mortality of patients with SOFA ≥ 3, n, %   5(21.7) 11(52.4) HR 0.2(0.1 to 0.9) 0.04
ICU stay, days   22.9 ± 14.8 17.8 ± 13.3 5.0(− 2.5 to 12.7) 0.20
Hospital mortality, n, %   6(22.2) 11(37.9) HR 0.5(0.2 to 1.5) 0.20
Hospital mortality of patients with SOFA ≥ 3, n, %   5(21.7) 11(52.4) HR 0.2(0.1 to 0.9) 0.04
Hospital stay, days   35.0 ± 17.0 32.8 ± 17.0 2.2(− 7.5 to 11.8) 0.65
28-day mortality, n, %   6(22.2) 10(34.5) HR 0.5(0.2 to 1.8) 0.31
28 days mortality of patients with SOFA ≥ 3, n, %   5(21.7) 10(47.6) HR 0.3(0.1 to 1.1) 0.07
SOFA scores      
  1 3.5[3–6.8] 2.0[3.0–5.0] 0.7(− 0.9 to 2.3) 0.37
  3 4.0[2.0–8.0] 4.0[3.0–7.0] − 0.3(− 2.6 to 1.9) 0.50
  7 3.0[2.0–5.8] 6.0[2.50–8.0] − 1.14(− 3.1 to 0.8) 0.24
  7 0.0[-2.75–1.0] 0.0[–1.0–3.5] − 1.35(-3.04− 0.34) 0.25
Lowest P/F      
  1 188.7 ± 95.4 210.6 ± 128.5 34.6(− 91.9 to 48.0) 0.53
  3 217.3 ± 96.5 189.5 ± 101.9 30.7(− 34.3 to 89.9) 0.37
  7 228.5 ± 72.6 150.7 ± 75.3 22.1(33.2 to 122.5) 0.01
  7 20.0 ± 96.68 − 51.88 ± 150.72 41.02(5.92-172.45) 0.04
Lowest MAP      
  1 88.4 ± 16.6 93.4 ± 18.9 − 3.34(− 13.08 -6.38) 0.49
  3 87.6 ± 12.42 91.00 ± 14.00 − 3.40(− 10.74 -3.94) 0.36
  7 87.74 ± 14.24 88.77 ± 10.97 − 1.03(− 8.58 -6.53) 0.79
Advanced life support, n, %      
CRRT      
  1 1(3.8) 3(10.7) OR 0.3(0.0 to 3.5) 0.61
  7 3(12.5) 1(3.8) OR 3.57(0.4 to 36.9) 0.34
ECMO      
  1 1(3.8) 2(7.1) OR 0.5(0.0 to 6.0) 1.00
  7 0(0.0) 2(9.1) OR 0.5(0.4 to 0.7) 0.50
Oxygen-support category      
HFNC      
  1 7(25.9) 11(37.9) OR 0.6(0.2 to 1.8) 0.40
  7 11(47.8) 9(39.1) OR 14.3(0.4 to 4.6) 0.77
NIV      
  1 7(25.9) 7(24.1) OR 1.1(0.3 to 3.7) 1.00
  7 7(30.4) 2(8.7) OR 4.6(0.8 to 25.2) 0.14
IMV      
  1 11(40.7) 12(41.3) OR 1.0(0.3 to 2.9) 1.00
  7 10(43.5) 11(47.8) OR 0.8(0.3 to 2.7) 1.00
Complications, n, %      
Septic shock 9(34.6) 8(28.6) OR 1.3(0.4 to 2.4) 0.77  
Acute cardiac injury 7(26.9) 13(48.1) OR 0.4(0.1 to 1.3) 0.16  
Acute liver injury 12(48.0) 13(48.1) OR 1.0(0.3 to 3.0) 1.00  
Acute kidney injury 3(12.0) 6(22.2) OR 0.5(0.1 to 2.2) 0.50  
Coagulation disorders 9(34.6) 7(25.9) OR 1.5(0.5 to 5.0) 0.56  
  1. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, as median [interquartile range], or as numbers (percentage). Hazard ratio and 95% CI were estimated by Cox proportional risk model. Odds ratio with 95% CI were calculated by binary logistic regression for the rest. Absolute difference was expressed as a percentage with the 95% CI range. P values were calculated by logistic regression. 7 means the difference between the value from Day 1 to Day 7
  2. IMVFD28 invasive mechanical ventilation-free days in 28 days, HDIVC high-dose intravenous vitamin C, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SD standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range; HR hazard ratio, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, P/F PaO2/FiO2, MAP mean arterial pressure; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, HFNC high flow nasal cannula, IV invasive ventilation; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation, NIV noninvasive mechanical ventilation, ICU intensive care unit