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Table 1 Clinical patient characteristics upon activation of the sepsis code with respect to the total infected patient population and subsequent 28-day mortality

From: Biomarkers and clinical scores to aid the identification of disease severity and intensive care requirement following activation of an in-hospital sepsis code

 Patient population (N = 130)Survivors (N = 102)Non-survivors (N = 28)p-value
Age (years) (mean, S.D.)63.1 (15.2)62.3 (15.2)66.1 (15.0)0.205
Male gender (N, %)83 (63.8%)61 (59.8%)22 (78.6%)0.348
Infection characterisation
 Infection no SIRS (N,  %)7 (5.4%)6 (5.9%)1 (3.6%)0.623
 Severe sepsis (N,  %)41 (31.8%)37 (36.3%)4 (14.3%)0.028
 Septic shock (N,  %)82 (63.1%)59 (57.8%)23 (82.1%)0.031
 Sepsis-2 (N,  %)122 (93.8%)95 (93.1%)27 (96.4%)0.814
 Sepsis-3 (N,  %)116 (89.2%)88 (86.3%)28 (100.0%)0.157
Location of sepsis code activation
 Emergency department (N,  %)39 (30.0%)33 (32.4%)6 (21.4%)0.568
 Ward (N,  %)63 (48.5%)47 (46.1%)16 (57.1%)0.729
 ICU (N,  %)28 (21.5%)22 (21.6%)6 (21.4)0.839
 Surgical admissions (N,  %)47 (36.2%)37 (36.3%)10 (35.7%)0.487
 Medical admissions (N,  %)83 (63.8%)65 (63.7%)18 (64.3%)0.487
 ICU length of stay (days) (median, IQR)6 [2–15]5 [2–11]12 [3–24]0.093
 Hospital length of stay (days) (median, IQR)16.5 [8–31]17 [8–33]16 [5.5–27]0.298
Life supporting and intensive care therapies
 Vasopressors (N,  %)67 (51.5%)52 (40.0%)15 (53.6%)0.106
 Renal replacement therapy (N,  %)15 (11.5%)8 (6.2%)7 (25.0%)0.009
 Mechanical ventilation (N, %)44 (33.8%)30 (23.1%)14 (50.0%)0.011
 Mechanical ventilation duration (days)7 [3–16.25]5 [3–17.5]10 [4.5–14.75]0.081
 High-flow nasal cannula use (N, %)19 (14.6%)16 (15.7%)3 (10.7%)0.386
Pre-existing comorbidities
 Cardiopathy (N, %)24 (18.5%)16 (15.7%)8 (28.6%)0.120
 Chronic kidney disease (N, %)19 (14.6%)14 (13.7%)5 (17.6%)0.584
 COPD (N, %)19 (14.6%)10 (9.8%)9 (32.1%)0.003
 Immunosuppression (N, %)63 (48.5%)44 (43.1%)19 (67.9%)0.020
 Liver cirrhosis (N, %)3 (2.3%)1 (1.0%)2 (7.1%)0.054
Microbiology
 Positive blood culture (N, %)54 (41.5%)40 (39.2%)14 (50.0%)0.238
 Gram positive (N, %)34 (26.2%)24 (23.5%)10 (35.7%)0.895
 Gram negative (N, %)17 (13.1%)13 (12.7%)4 (14.3%)0.797
 Fungal (N, %)2 (1.5%)1 (1.0%)2 (7.1%)0.529
Origin of infection
 Abdominal (N, %)41 (31.5%)35 (34.3%)6 (21.4%)0.194
 Bacteria—primary (N, %)4 (3.1%)3 (2.9%)1 (3.6%)0.864
 Catheter-related (N,  %)8 (6.2%)5 (4.9%)3 (10.7%)0.257
 Central nervous system (N, %)2 (1.5%)1 (1.0%)1 (3.6%)0.324
 Respiratory (N, %)34 (26.2%)25 (24.5%)9 (32.1%)0.416
 Soft-tissue (N, %)4 (3.1%)4 (3.9%)0 (0.0%)0.287
 Urinary (N, %)30 (23.1%)25 (24.5%)5 (17.9%)0.459
 Unknown (N, %)3 (2.3%)1 (1.0%)2 (7.1%)0.054
 Other (N, %)4 (3.1%)3 (2.9%)1 (3.6%)0.864
Source control
 Focus cleaning (N,  %)34 (26.2%)28 (27.5%)6 (21.4%)0.521
 Drainage (N, %)8 (6.2%)6 (5.9%)2 (7.1%)0.806
 Surgery (N, %)23 (17.7%)20 (19.6%)3 (10.7%)0.275
Biomarker and severity scores
 MR-proADM (nmol/L) (median, IQR)3.54 [1.89–6.69]3.18 [1.73–5.64]5.69 [3.98–13.43]< 0.001
 PCT (ng/mL) (median, IQR)7.05 [1.46–28.8]7.85 [1.61–29.13]4.94 [1.25–29.86]0.654
 Lactate (mmol/L) (median, IQR)2.65 [1.70–4.57]2.50 [1.60–3.75]4.1 [2.0–8.10]0.005
 CRP (mg/L) (median, IQR)17.78 [11.03–27.88]17.48 [10.83–27.60]23.14 [12.86–30.80]0.322
 SOFA (points) (mean, S.D.)6.39 (3.46)5.74 (3.11)8.65 (3.70)< 0.001
 APACHE II (points) (mean, S.D.)21.98 (7.22)21.63 (7.58)23.13 (6.02)0.783
  1. Data are presented as absolute numbers with percentages in brackets, indicating the proportion of surviving and non-surviving patients at 28 days. APACHE II Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRP C-reactive protein, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, MR-proADM mid-regional proadrenomedullin, N number, PCT procalcitonin, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score