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Table 1 Design heterogeneity in studies on the effects of natural light exposure on patients in the intensive care unit

From: Natural versus artificial light exposure on delirium incidence in ARDS patients

Author (reference)Design (N)Sample size calculationDelirium definitionScreening toolScreen frequency (no./day)ICU patient populationDelirium incidence or severity with NL exposure
Our studyRetrospective analysis of prospective study (181)YesaDSM-IV-TRCAM-ICU3Long stay medical and surgical with ARDSDecreased
Arenson [6]Retrospective (1010)NoNot reportedCAM-ICU3Post-operativeNo change
Estrup [5]Retrospective (183)NoNot reportedCAM-ICUb2UnspecifiedNo change
Kohn [7]Retrospective (6631)NoNot reportedNonec1Medical ICU patientsNo change
Smonig [1]Prospective, observational (195)YesaNot reportedICDSCc2On MV of any etiology/durationNo changed
Zaal [8]Prospective, before–after (130)NoNot reportedCAM-ICU1Medical and surgicalNo change
  1. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, CAM-ICU confusion assessment method for the ICU, DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ICDSC Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist, MV mechanical ventilation
  2. aTo achieve a power of power 80% to detect a decrease of delirium from 80 to 60% (two-sided test, alpha = 0.05), the necessary sample size is 180 patients [1] would be necessary
  3. bDelirium categorization included any patient treated with haloperidol, regardless of CAM-ICU screen
  4. cRequired a positive screen for at least 2 consecutive days to be considered positive
  5. dLess haloperidol administration; less hallucinations