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Table 1 Comparison of deprived and non-deprived patients at admission to the intensive care unit in the IVOIRE cohort (N = 1294)

From: Influence of deprivation on initial severity and prognosis of patients admitted to the ICU: the prospective, multicentre, observational IVOIRE cohort study

Variable All (n = 1294) Non-deprived (n = 665) Deprived (n = 629) p
Sociodemographic characteristics     
 Age 66.17 ± 14.93 67.18 ± 13.95 65.10 ± 15.84 0.01
 Male gender 805 (62.2%) 425 (63.9%) 380 (60.4%) 0.195
 Level of educationa,c     < 0.0001
No educational diplomas/certificates 249 (19.7%) 95 (14.6%) 154 (25.0%)  
Primary school certificate and/or some secondary school 363 (28.7%) 173 (26.6%) 190 (30.8%)  
Professional certificate 358 (28.3%) 193 (29.7%) 165 (26.8%)  
High school diploma or higher 296 (23.4%) 189 (29.1%) 107 (17.4%)  
 Employment statusa,c     < 0.0001
Not working, unemployed or job-seeker, never worked 143 (11.2%) 48 (7.3%) 95 (15.3%)  
Employed 190 (14.9%) 118 (18.0%) 72 (11.6%)  
Retired 817 (64.1%) 456 (69.7%) 361 (58.1%)  
Invalidity 125 (9.8%) 32 (4.9%) 93 (15.0%)  
 Socioeconomic categorya,c     < 0.0001
Farmers 54 (4.2%) 34 (5.1%) 20 (3.2%)  
Self-employed/own business 106 (8.2%) 59 (8.9%) 47 (7.5%)  
Upper management and liberal professions 130 (10.1%) 95 (14.4%) 35 (5.6%)  
Labourers 397 (30.9%) 165 (25.0%) 232 (37.1%)  
Employees/intermediate professions 500 (38.9%) 273 (41.4%) 227 (36.3%)  
No profession 69 (5.4%) 25 (3.8%) 44 (7.0%)  
Did not wish to disclose 29 (2.3%) 9 (1.4%) 20 (3.2%)  
Living arrangementsb     
 Living alone 372 (28.8%) 105 (15.8%) 267 (42.4%) < 0.0001
 Living with family members 871 (67.3%) 556 (83.6%) 315 (50.1%) < 0.0001
 In assisted living, long-term care facility or nursing home 47 (3.6%) 2 (0.3%) 45 (7.1%) < 0.0001
Social welfare coverageb     
 Beneficiary of the basic French healthcare systemc 1234 (96.4%) 642 (97.9%) 592 (94.9%) 0.004
 Universal healthcare coveragec 46 (3.6%) 15 (2.3%) 31 (5.0%) 0.010
 Universal coverage + assistance with complementary health insurance + state medical aidc 47 (3.7%) 11 (1.7%) 36 (5.8%) 0.0001
 Complementary health insurancec 1102 (86.2%) 612 (93.3%) 490 (78.8%) < 0.0001
Pre-existing conditions     
 Alcohol consumption (≥ 2 glasses per day)c 399 (31.7%) 179 (27.5%) 220 (36.1%) 0.001
 Smoking statusc     < 0.0001
Non-smokers 474 (36.8%) 272 (41.0%) 202 (32.4%)  
Current smokers 360 (28.0%) 144 (21.7%) 216 (34.7%)  
Former smokers 453 (35.2%) 248 (37.3%) 205 (32.9%)  
 Charlson comorbidity index mean ± SD 2.6 ± 2.5 2.4 ± 2.4 2.8 ± 2.6 0.007
 Katz ADL score < 3c 88 (6.9%) 30 (4.6%) 58 (9.3%) 0.0009
Healthcare utilization     
 Chronic diseasec 839 (68.0%) 416 (64.8%) 423 (71.4%) 0.0123
 Home helpc 271 (21.4%) 121 (18.4%) 150 (24.5%) 0.009
 Difficulty paying for medication or examinationsc 90 (7.2%) 16 (2.5%) 74 (12.3%) < 0.0001
 Time from home to nearest doctor ≥ 15 minc 303 (24.4%) 131 (20.3%) 172 (28.7%) 0.0006
Severity of illness at admission     
 SOFAc mean ± SD 8.0 ± 4.0 8.2 ± 3.8 7.7 ± 4.2 0.018
 Indication for admission to ICUa,c     0.194
Cardiac 188 (15.3%) 104 (16.5%) 84 (14.0%)  
Gastro-enterology 63 (5.1%) 37 (5.9%) 26 (4.3%)  
Neurological 56 (4.6%) 26 (4.1%) 30 (5.0%)  
Renal 40 (3.2%) 17 (2.7%) 23 (3.8%)  
Respiratory 392 (31.8%) 187 (29.6%) 205 (34.1%)  
Sepsis 325 (26.4%) 170 (26.9%) 155 (25.8%)  
Trauma 72 (5.8%) 33 (5.2%) 39 (6.5%)  
Other reasons 96 (7.8%) 57 (9.0%) 39 (6.5%)  
  1. aPercentages may not total 100 because of rounding
  2. bPercentages may not total 100 because more than one answer was possible
  3. cMissing data: level of education(n = 28), employment status (n = 19), socioeconomic category (n = 9), basic healthcare coverage (n = 14), universal coverage (n = 29), universal coverage + assistance (n = 31), complementary insurance (n = 16), alcohol (n = 35), smoking (n = 7), Katz’s ADL score (n = 17), long-term disease (n = 60), home help (n = 25), difficulty paying for medication or examination (n = 48), time to nearest doctor (n = 51), SOFA(n = 8), indication for admission to ICU (n = 62)