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Table 1 Comparison of deprived and non-deprived patients at admission to the intensive care unit in the IVOIRE cohort (N = 1294)

From: Influence of deprivation on initial severity and prognosis of patients admitted to the ICU: the prospective, multicentre, observational IVOIRE cohort study

VariableAll (n = 1294)Non-deprived (n = 665)Deprived (n = 629)p
Sociodemographic characteristics    
 Age66.17 ± 14.9367.18 ± 13.9565.10 ± 15.840.01
 Male gender805 (62.2%)425 (63.9%)380 (60.4%)0.195
 Level of educationa,c   < 0.0001
No educational diplomas/certificates249 (19.7%)95 (14.6%)154 (25.0%) 
Primary school certificate and/or some secondary school363 (28.7%)173 (26.6%)190 (30.8%) 
Professional certificate358 (28.3%)193 (29.7%)165 (26.8%) 
High school diploma or higher296 (23.4%)189 (29.1%)107 (17.4%) 
 Employment statusa,c   < 0.0001
Not working, unemployed or job-seeker, never worked143 (11.2%)48 (7.3%)95 (15.3%) 
Employed190 (14.9%)118 (18.0%)72 (11.6%) 
Retired817 (64.1%)456 (69.7%)361 (58.1%) 
Invalidity125 (9.8%)32 (4.9%)93 (15.0%) 
 Socioeconomic categorya,c   < 0.0001
Farmers54 (4.2%)34 (5.1%)20 (3.2%) 
Self-employed/own business106 (8.2%)59 (8.9%)47 (7.5%) 
Upper management and liberal professions130 (10.1%)95 (14.4%)35 (5.6%) 
Labourers397 (30.9%)165 (25.0%)232 (37.1%) 
Employees/intermediate professions500 (38.9%)273 (41.4%)227 (36.3%) 
No profession69 (5.4%)25 (3.8%)44 (7.0%) 
Did not wish to disclose29 (2.3%)9 (1.4%)20 (3.2%) 
Living arrangementsb    
 Living alone372 (28.8%)105 (15.8%)267 (42.4%)< 0.0001
 Living with family members871 (67.3%)556 (83.6%)315 (50.1%)< 0.0001
 In assisted living, long-term care facility or nursing home47 (3.6%)2 (0.3%)45 (7.1%)< 0.0001
Social welfare coverageb    
 Beneficiary of the basic French healthcare systemc1234 (96.4%)642 (97.9%)592 (94.9%)0.004
 Universal healthcare coveragec46 (3.6%)15 (2.3%)31 (5.0%)0.010
 Universal coverage + assistance with complementary health insurance + state medical aidc47 (3.7%)11 (1.7%)36 (5.8%)0.0001
 Complementary health insurancec1102 (86.2%)612 (93.3%)490 (78.8%)< 0.0001
Pre-existing conditions    
 Alcohol consumption (≥ 2 glasses per day)c399 (31.7%)179 (27.5%)220 (36.1%)0.001
 Smoking statusc   < 0.0001
Non-smokers474 (36.8%)272 (41.0%)202 (32.4%) 
Current smokers360 (28.0%)144 (21.7%)216 (34.7%) 
Former smokers453 (35.2%)248 (37.3%)205 (32.9%) 
 Charlson comorbidity index mean ± SD2.6 ± 2.52.4 ± 2.42.8 ± 2.60.007
 Katz ADL score < 3c88 (6.9%)30 (4.6%)58 (9.3%)0.0009
Healthcare utilization    
 Chronic diseasec839 (68.0%)416 (64.8%)423 (71.4%)0.0123
 Home helpc271 (21.4%)121 (18.4%)150 (24.5%)0.009
 Difficulty paying for medication or examinationsc90 (7.2%)16 (2.5%)74 (12.3%)< 0.0001
 Time from home to nearest doctor ≥ 15 minc303 (24.4%)131 (20.3%)172 (28.7%)0.0006
Severity of illness at admission    
 SOFAc mean ± SD8.0 ± 4.08.2 ± 3.87.7 ± 4.20.018
 Indication for admission to ICUa,c   0.194
Cardiac188 (15.3%)104 (16.5%)84 (14.0%) 
Gastro-enterology63 (5.1%)37 (5.9%)26 (4.3%) 
Neurological56 (4.6%)26 (4.1%)30 (5.0%) 
Renal40 (3.2%)17 (2.7%)23 (3.8%) 
Respiratory392 (31.8%)187 (29.6%)205 (34.1%) 
Sepsis325 (26.4%)170 (26.9%)155 (25.8%) 
Trauma72 (5.8%)33 (5.2%)39 (6.5%) 
Other reasons96 (7.8%)57 (9.0%)39 (6.5%) 
  1. aPercentages may not total 100 because of rounding
  2. bPercentages may not total 100 because more than one answer was possible
  3. cMissing data: level of education(n = 28), employment status (n = 19), socioeconomic category (n = 9), basic healthcare coverage (n = 14), universal coverage (n = 29), universal coverage + assistance (n = 31), complementary insurance (n = 16), alcohol (n = 35), smoking (n = 7), Katz’s ADL score (n = 17), long-term disease (n = 60), home help (n = 25), difficulty paying for medication or examination (n = 48), time to nearest doctor (n = 51), SOFA(n = 8), indication for admission to ICU (n = 62)