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Table 1 Characteristics and outcomes between influenza-associated ARDS patients with versus without early corticosteroid treatment

From: Impact of corticosteroid treatment on clinical outcomes of influenza-associated ARDS: a nationwide multicenter study

VariablesEarly CS treatment (N = 85)No early CS treatment (N = 156)p value
Age61.0 (56.0–68.0)59.0 (49.0–65.5)0.211
Male gender52 (61.2)101 (64.7)0.674
APACHE II score24.0 (18.0–30.0)23.0 (17.0–29.0)0.129
BMI24.6 (22.1–28.1)24.8 (21.2–28.1)0.808
Comorbidity
 Malignancy7 (8.2)22 (14.1)0.217
 Diabetes26 (30.6)43 (27.6)0.655
 Cerebrovascular disease8 (9.4)10 (6.4)0.445
 Chronic airway disease10 (11.8)11 (7.1)0.237
 End-stage renal disease7 (8.2)7 (4.5)0.257
 Congestive heart failure11 (12.9)15 (9.6)0.515
Influenza0.539
 Type A61 (71.8)118 (75.6) 
 Type B24 (28.2)38 (24.4) 
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio87.5 (56.0–142.3)84.0 (62.0–149.6)0.670
Severity of ARDS0.539
 Severe ARDS46 (54.1)95 (60.9) 
 Moderate ARDS32 (37.6)41 (26.3) 
 Mild ARDS7 (8.2)20 (12.8) 
Laboratory data
 WBC count, ×103/μL9.6 (5.5–15.5)8.8 (5.9–13.0)0.253
 Hemoglobin, g/dL12.5 (10.5–14.2)11.9 (10.0–13.5)0.102
 Platelet count, ×103/μL150.0 (108.5–200.5)149.0 (102.0–210.0)0.770
 Albumin, g/dL2.9 (2.5–3.3)2.9 (2.5–3.2)0.670
 C-reactive protein, mg/dL14.1 (4.2–23.3)14.9 (6.7–23.0)0.727
 Bacterial coinfectionsa14 (16.5)17 (10.9)0.231
Specific treatment
 Mechanical ventilation85 (100.0)156 (100.0)0.539
 Prone positioning or ECMO36 (42.4)56 (35.9)0.334
  Prone positioning29 (34.1)29 (18.6)0.011
  ECMO11 (12.9)30 (19.2)0.281
 Vasopressor infusion49 (57.6)72 (46.2)0.105
 Hemodialysis16 (18.8)24 (15.4)0.587
Clinical outcomes
 Hospital mortality37 (43.5)30 (19.2)< 0.001
 Hospital days in survivors24.8 (17.1–40.1)28.2 (19.1–44.4)0.475
 ICU days in survivors13.8 (8.4–23.0)14.8 (9.1–21.8)0.664
 Ventilator days in survivors11.9 (8.4–25.3)14.4 (7.8–21.7)0.953
 ICU-free days at Day 280.0 (0.0–15.2)9.2 (0.0–17.6)0.012
 Ventilator-free days at Day 280.0 (0.0–17.1)11.0 (0.0–19.6)0.009
  1. APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, CS corticosteroid, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, PaO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen, WBC white blood cell
  2. Statistics are presented as the median (25th–75th percentiles) for continuous variables and as number (%) for categorical variables, as appropriate. p values are calculated by Mann–Whitney U test (or known as Wilcoxon rank sum test) and Chi-square test for continuous and categorical variables, respectively
  3. aBacterial coinfection was defined as positive bacterial cultures from blood, pleural effusion, lower respiratory tract secretion, or urine samples within 48 h of ARDS diagnosis