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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with eGFR ≥ 30 who received levosimendan versus dobutamine alone

From: Levosimendan use in patients with acute heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with or without severe renal dysfunction in critical cardiac care units: a multi-institution database study

Variable Valid N Before PSM After PSM
Levosimendan
(n = 102)
Dobutamine
(n = 567)
STD Levosimendan
(n = 82)
Dobutamine
(n = 145)
STD
Age, year* 669 65.8 ± 15.3 64.3 ± 15.1 0.10 65.5 ± 14.7 65.7 ± 15.6 − 0.01
Male* 669 76 (74.5) 437 (77.1) − 0.06 64 (78.0) 105 (72.4) 0.13
LVEF, %* 669 28.7 ± 6.8 28.3 ± 7.8 0.05 27.7 ± 6.7 27.7 ± 7.8  < 0.01
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2* 669 66.2 ± 31.9 65.8 ± 29.1 0.01 66.6 ± 32.5 67.6 ± 29.5 − 0.03
Inotropic agents during the index admission
 Dopamine* 669 24 (23.5) 67 (11.8) 0.31 15 (18.3) 24 (16.6) 0.05
 Norepinephrine* 669 15 (14.7) 87 (15.3) − 0.02 12 (14.6) 20 (13.8) 0.02
 Epinephrine* 669 8 (7.8) 112 (19.8) − 0.35 6 (7.3) 11 (7.6) − 0.01
AMI during the index admission* 669 35 (34.3) 85 (15.0) 0.46 20 (24.4) 37 (25.5) − 0.03
PCI during the index admission* 669 23 (22.5) 41 (7.2) 0.44 12 (14.6) 21 (14.5)  < 0.01
Myocarditis during the index admission* 669 6 (5.9) 8 (1.4) 0.24 3 (3.7) 2 (1.4) 0.15
Mechanical ventilator* 669 52 (51.0) 233 (41.1) 0.20 41 (50.0) 59 (40.7) 0.19
IABP* 669 34 (33.3) 26 (4.6) 0.79 14 (17.1) 20 (13.8) 0.09
ICU days 669 7 [4, 11] 2 [0, 6] NA 7 [3, 10] 3 [0, 7] NA
Admission days 669 19 [15, 36] 19 [12, 31] NA 20 [15, 38] 18 [12, 29] NA
Risk score*
 SOFA 669 6.4 ± 2.0 6.8 ± 2.2 − 0.20 6.4 ± 2.0 6.2 ± 1.8 0.10
 APACHE III 669 37.5 ± 17.6 32.4 ± 16.2 0.31 37.3 ± 18.2 35.5 ± 19.0 0.10
Comorbidities
 Atrial fibrillation 669 39 (38.2) 216 (38.1) 0.00 35 (42.7) 47 (32.4) 0.21
 Diabetes mellitus 669 44 (43.1) 266 (46.9) − 0.08 38 (46.3) 85 (58.6) − 0.25
 Hypertension 669 63 (61.8) 391 (69.0) − 0.15 51 (62.2) 107 (73.8) − 0.25
 Dyslipidemia 669 70 (68.6) 301 (53.1) 0.32 54 (65.9) 90 (62.1) 0.08
Baseline medications
 Aspirin 669 78 (76.5) 379 (66.8) 0.21 61 (74.4) 101 (69.7) 0.11
 Clopidogrel 669 58 (56.9) 273 (48.1) 0.18 45 (54.9) 83 (57.2) − 0.05
 Ticagrelor 669 41 (40.2) 88 (15.5) 0.57 26 (31.7) 27 (18.6) 0.31
 Beta-blockers 669 97 (95.1) 474 (83.6) 0.38 79 (96.3) 122 (84.1) 0.42
 ACEi 669 65 (63.7) 314 (55.4) 0.17 49 (59.8) 79 (54.5) 0.11
 ARBs 669 73 (71.6) 375 (66.1) 0.12 59 (72.0) 98 (67.6) 0.10
 MRA 669 73 (71.6) 443 (78.1) − 0.15 61 (74.4) 111 (76.6) − 0.05
 Digoxin 669 42 (41.2) 268 (47.3) − 0.12 39 (47.6) 65 (44.8) 0.05
 Amiodarone 669 72 (70.6) 298 (52.6) 0.38 60 (73.2) 60 (41.4) 0.68
 Ivabradine 669 43 (42.2) 117 (20.6) 0.48 32 (39.0) 34 (23.4) 0.34
Baseline laboratory data
 Hemoglobin, g/dl 664 12.1 ± 2.5 11.8 ± 2.3 0.12 12.1 ± 2.5 11.8 ± 2.3 0.13
 ALT, U/L 595 37 [23, 85] 25 [17, 50] NA 35 [21, 96] 26 [18, 56] NA
 BNP, pg/mL 401 1451
[840, 3789]
1494
[772, 2560]
NA 1435
[840, 3810]
1751
[957, 2821]
NA
 HCO3, mmol/L 289 23.6 ± 5.8 25.9 ± 5.7 − 0.40 23.9 ± 6.4 25.2 ± 5.1 − 0.22
 Total bilirubin, mg/dL 413 1.7 ± 2.0 1.7 ± 2.1 0.01 1.7 ± 2.2 1.7 ± 2.7 0.00
 BUN, mg/dL 647 30.3 ± 15.8 29.8 ± 16.6 0.03 30.0 ± 16.1 31.2 ± 19.9 − 0.07
 Sodium, mg/dL 668 138.4 ± 5.3 139.6 ± 5.7 − 0.23 138.2 ± 5.1 139.4 ± 6.1 − 0.21
 Potassium, mg/dL 668 4.0 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 0.6 0.10 3.9 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.6 − 0.08
 Platelet, 1000/μL 662 182.9 ± 76.3 182.5 ± 81.0 0.01 179.9 ± 75.3 195.5 ± 87.0 − 0.19
 Hematocrit, % 664 36.4 ± 7.3 35.9 ± 6.7 0.07 36.5 ± 7.4 35.9 ± 6.6 0.08
 WBC, 1000/μL 663 10.2 ± 5.3 10.6 ± 5.1 − 0.07 9.7 ± 5.0 10.9 ± 4.8 − 0.25
 Albumin, mg/dL 456 3.4 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.5 0.07 3.4 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.5 0.33
 Lactate, mg/dL 263 28.6 ± 35.4 26.8 ± 20.5 0.07 27.7 ± 38.2 25.7 ± 20.5 0.07
 INR 506 1.3 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4 − 0.22 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 − 0.07
  1. PSM propensity score matching, STD standard difference, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, AMI acute myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, IABP intra-aortic balloon pumping, ICU intensive care unit, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ACEi angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor, ARBs angiotensin II receptor blockers, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, ALT alanine aminotransferase, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, BUN blood urea nitrogen, NA not available, WBC white blood count, INR international normalized ratio
  2. Data were presented as number (%), mean ± standard deviation or median [25th, 75th percentile];
  3. *Included in the calculation of propensity score