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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patients with eGFR < 30 or dialysis who received levosimendan versus dobutamine alone

From: Levosimendan use in patients with acute heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with or without severe renal dysfunction in critical cardiac care units: a multi-institution database study

Variable   Before PSM‡ After PSM‡
Valid N Levosimendan
(n = 52)
Dobutamine
(n = 374)
STD Levosimendan
(n = 43)
Dobutamine
(n = 81)
STD
Age, year* 426 72.6 ± 12.1 70.4 ± 11.9 0.18 72.6 ± 11.6 71.3 ± 11.3 0.11
Male* 426 31 (59.6) 237 (63.4) − 0.08 23 (53.5) 51 (63.0) − 0.19
LVEF, %* 426 25.9 ± 7.4 29.6 ± 7.1 − 0.51 26.4 ± 7.5 25.6 ± 8.1 0.10
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2* 279 18.8 ± 6.7 19.1 ± 6.7 0.08 18.3 ± 6.6 21.1 ± 6.1 − 0.43
Prior dialysis* 426 18 (34.6) 129 (34.5) 0.00 15 (34.9) 30 (37.0) − 0.04
Inotropic agents during the index admission
 Dopamine* 426 14 (26.9) 51 (13.6) 0.34 10 (23.3) 19 (23.5)  < 0.01
 Norepinephrine* 426 10 (19.2) 77 (20.6) − 0.03 9 (20.9) 18 (22.2) − 0.03
 Epinephrine* 426 5 (9.6) 59 (15.8) − 0.19 4 (9.3) 9 (11.1) − 0.06
AMI during the index admission* 426 16 (30.8) 85 (22.7) 0.18 14 (32.6) 22 (27.2) 0.12
PCI during the index admission* 426 11 (21.2) 36 (9.6) 0.32 9 (20.9) 16 (19.8) 0.03
Myocarditis during the index admission* 426 3 (5.8) 2 (0.5) 0.30 1 (2.3) 1 (1.2) 0.08
Mechanical ventilator* 426 36 (69.2) 151 (40.4) 0.61 27 (62.8) 46 (56.8) 0.12
IABP* 426 13 (25.0) 26 (7.0) 0.51 7 (16.3) 15 (18.5) − 0.06
ICU days 426 11 [4, 18] 3 [0, 10] NA 11 [4, 21] 5 [0, 13] NA
Admission days 426 29 [15.5, 49] 24 [13, 42] NA 29 [16, 53] 25 [13, 39] NA
Risk score*
 SOFA 426 8.4 ± 2.1 8.9 ± 2.4 − 0.21 8.6 ± 2.2 8.6 ± 2.0 − 0.04
 APACHE III 426 50.2 ± 13.3 49.8 ± 15.4 0.03 50.9 ± 13.8 49.4 ± 13.5 0.11
Comorbidities
 Atrial fibrillation 426 16 (30.8) 145 (38.8) − 0.17 15 (34.9) 24 (29.6) 0.11
 Diabetes mellitus 426 35 (67.3) 249 (66.6) 0.02 29 (67.4) 52 (64.2) 0.07
 Hypertension 426 43 (82.7) 311 (83.2) − 0.01 35 (81.4) 63 (77.8) 0.09
 Dyslipidemia 426 35 (67.3) 223 (59.6) 0.16 28 (65.1) 57 (70.4) − 0.11
Baseline medications
 Aspirin 426 43 (82.7) 250 (66.8) 0.37 35 (81.4) 61 (75.3) 0.15
 Clopidogrel 426 35 (67.3) 214 (57.2) 0.21 28 (65.1) 44 (54.3) 0.22
 Ticagrelor 426 18 (34.6) 72 (19.3) 0.35 12 (27.9) 22 (27.2) 0.02
 Beta-blockers 426 46 (88.5) 325 (86.9) 0.05 38 (88.4) 67 (82.7) 0.16
 ACE inhibitors 426 30 (57.7) 163 (43.6) 0.29 23 (53.5) 35 (43.2) 0.21
 ARB 426 37 (71.2) 235 (62.8) 0.18 29 (67.4) 53 (65.4) 0.04
 MRA 426 34 (65.4) 196 (52.4) 0.27 31 (72.1) 39 (48.1) 0.50
 Digoxin 426 20 (38.5) 153 (40.9) − 0.05 20 (46.5) 29 (35.8) 0.22
 Amiodarone 426 30 (57.7) 188 (50.3) 0.15 27 (62.8) 33 (40.7) 0.45
 Ivabradine 426 28 (53.8) 84 (22.5) 0.68 22 (51.2) 23 (28.4) 0.48
Baseline laboratory data
 Hemoglobin, g/dl 425 11.3 ± 2.7 10.0 ± 2.0 0.55 11.1 ± 2.7 10.5 ± 2.2 0.27
 ALT, U/L 376 28 [15, 130] 23 [15, 45] NA 35 [16, 130] 29 [16, 70] NA
 BNP, pg/mL 271 4634
[1625, 5000]
2412
[1231.9, 4700]
NA 4634
[1625, 5000]
3030
[1580, 4700]
NA
 HCO3, mmol/L 261 21.1 ± 6.0 23.0 ± 5.8 − 0.31 21.2 ± 6.3 21.6 ± 5.0 − 0.08
 Total bilirubin, mg/dL 288 1.6 ± 2.0 1.5 ± 2.1 0.05 1.6 ± 2.1 1.5 ± 2.0 0.06
 BUN, mg/dL 419 66.7 ± 37.0 70.3 ± 38.6 − 0.10 70.6 ± 38.0 68.0 ± 36.7 0.07
 Sodium, mg/dL 426 139.2 ± 6.5 139.2 ± 6.3 0.00 140.0 ± 6.8 139.4 ± 6.7 0.09
 Potassium, mg/dL 426 4.2 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.7 0.06 4.3 ± 0.7 4.1 ± 0.7 0.17
 Platelet, 1000/μL 424 163.7 ± 71.9 169.1 ± 85.4 − 0.07 166.3 ± 75.3 183.3 ± 92.1 − 0.20
 Hematocrit, % 425 34.1 ± 7.6 30.7 ± 5.9 0.51 34.0 ± 7.6 32.1 ± 6.5 0.28
 WBC, 1000/μL 424 9.9 ± 3.9 10.1 ± 5.5 − 0.04 10.4 ± 3.9 10.6 ± 5.0 − 0.05
 Albumin, mg/dL 328 3.2 ± 0.5 3.1 ± 0.5 0.05 3.1 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.5 − 0.11
 Lactate, mg/dL 184 29.9 ± 34.1 32.9 ± 32.5 − 0.09 30.5 ± 36.2 41.5 ± 39.9 − 0.29
 INR 319 1.7 ± 1.0 1.6 ± 0.8 0.17 1.8 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.8 0.34
  1. PSM propensity score matching, STD standard difference, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, AMI acute myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, IABP intra-aortic balloon pumping, ICU intensive care unit, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ACEi angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARBs angiotensin II receptor blockers, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, ALT alanine aminotransferase, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, BUN blood urea nitrogen, NA not available, WBC white blood count, INR international normalized ratio
  2. Data were presented as number (%), mean ± standard deviation or median [25th, 75th percentile];
  3. *Included in the calculation of propensity score