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Table 1 Characteristics and outcome of patients with COVID-19, bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia

From: Increased susceptibility to intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia in severe COVID-19 patients: a multicentre retrospective cohort study

Variables COVID-19 (n = 176) Bacterial pneumonia (n = 435) Viral pneumonia (n = 48) p
Age, years 63 (55–73) 66 (56–79) 72 (42–75) 0.002
Male gender 134 (76) 296 (68) 25 (52)  < 0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2 28.2 (26–32.3) 23.4 (20.7–26.7) 23 (19.2–28.9)  < 0.001
Comorbid conditions
 Immunosuppression 26 (15) 145 (33) 13 (27)  < 0.001
 Cirrhosis 2 (1) 41 (9) 1 (2)  < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 45 (26) 89 (21) 7 (14) 0.181
 COPD 17 (10) 103 (24) 9 (19)  < 0.001
 Chronic renal failure 13 (7) 49 (11) 7 (15) 0.22
 Cancer (ongoing or < 5 years) 16 (9) 120 (28) 8 (17)  < 0.001
Severity on ICU admission
 SAPS2, points 43 (30–56) 73 (55–88) 47 (39–71)  < 0.001
 SOFA, points 6 (4–9) 9 (6– 2) 7 (2–13)  < 0.001
Biological findings
 WBC count, per mm3 8.4 (6.9–12.4) 12 (6.2–17.6) 8.8 (3.4–11.7)  < 0.001
 Lactate, mmol/L 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.7 (1–3.8) 1.4 (0.4–3.1) 0.02
Characteristics of pneumonia
 Clinical presentation
  Septic shock (Sepsis-3) 28 (16) 191 (44) 15 (31)  < 0.001
  ARDS 170 (96) 62 (14) 17 (35)  < 0.001
  Microbiological documentation 21 (12) 286 (66) 11 (24)  < 0.001
  Gram-negative bacteria 11 (7) 148 (34) 5 (10)
  Gram-positive cocci 10 (6) 126 (30) 6 (13)
  SARS-CoV-2 176 (100) 0 0
 I nfluenza virus 0 0 46 (96)
  Miscellaneous 0 12 (3)* 2 (4)**
ICU management within the first 48 h
 Antimicrobial agents 161 (92) 435 (100) 45 (94)  < 0.001
  Vasopressors 371 (85) 147 (83) 37 (71) 0.32
  Prone positioning 130 (74) 41 (9) 9 (19)  < 0.001
  Number of sessions 3 (2–5) 2 (1,5–2,5) 1 (1–2)  < 0.001
  Anaesthesia ventilator 12 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0)  < 0.001
  Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 10 (6) 14 (3) 5 (10) 0.04
  Renal replacement therapy 51 (29) 44 (10) 9 (19)  < 0.001
  Blood transfusions 67 (38) 223 (51) 18 (37) 0.01
  Corticosteroids 12 (6) 213 (49) 0 (0)  < 0.001
Outcomes
 Total duration of mechanical ventilation, days 17 (10–28) 8 (5–16) 7 (4–13)  < 0.001
  ICU length of stay, days 20 (12–30) 10 (6–19)) 9 (6–16)  < 0.001
  ICU mortality 55 (31) 143 (33) 12 (25)  < 0.001
  1. ICU, intensive care unit, ICU-AI, intensive care unit-acquired infections, COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SAPS2, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2, SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, WBC, white blood cell. Variables are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage) as appropriate
  2. * Including fungi (n = 10) and mycobacteria (n = 2), **Including metapneumovirus (n = 1) and cytomegalovirus (n = 1)