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Table 2 Intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICU-AP) in patients

From: Increased susceptibility to intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia in severe COVID-19 patients: a multicentre retrospective cohort study

ICU-acquired pneumonia COVID-19 (n = 92) Bacterial pneumonia (n = 113) Viral pneumonia (n = 11) p
Frequency 92 (52) 113 (26) 11 (23)  < 0.001
Time from intubation to first ICU-AP, days 9 (6–14) 9 (6–12) 7 (6.5–14) 0.70
Deterioration to septic shock 45 (49) 72 (64) 5 (45) 0.01
Microbiological documentation
 Enterobacteriaceae 50 27 3  < 0.001
 Non-fermenting GNB 20 114 7
 Gram-positive cocci 28 3 1
 Polymicrobial 24 (16) 19 (17) 2 (4)
 Fungi 1 2 0
Subsequent episodes of ICU-AP
 Second 37 (21) 53 (12) 3 (6)  
 Third 15 (8) 37 (8) 3 (6)  
 Fourth 2 (1) 12 (3) 0  
  1. ICU, intensive care unit, ICU-AP, intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia. Variables are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage) as appropriate