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Table 2 Operative performance of predictors of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients at Vt ≤ 8 ml/kg without arrhythmia and respiratory effort

From: Predictors of fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients mechanically ventilated at low tidal volumes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study year Predictor of fluid responsiveness tp n1 tn n2 nt Sensibility Specificity AUC Threshold (%) Method used to measure the variable studied Haemodynamic end point Fluid responsiveness rate
De Backer et al. [4] 2005 PPV 12 18 10 15 33 0.67 (0.41–0.87) 0.67 (0.38–0.88) 0.71 ± 0.09 8 Analysis of arterial tracing CI ≥ 15% 0.55
Auler et al. [26] 2008 PPV 38 39 19 20 59 0.97 (0.87–1.00) 0.95 (1.00) 0.98 ± 0.01 12 Analysis of arterial tracing CI ≥ 15% 0.66
Huang et al. [27] 2008 PPV 7 10 12 12 22 0.70 (0.35–0.93) 1.00 (0.74–1.00) 0.76 11.8 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 0.45
Vistisen et al. [28] 2009 PPV 16 17 5 6 23 0.94 (0.71–1.00) 0.83 (0.36–1.00) NR 6.5 Analysis of arterial tracing CI ≥ 15% 0.73
Vallee et al. [29] 2009 PPV 5 16 19 26 42 0.31 (0.11–0.59) 0.73 (0.52–0.88) 0.62 (0.45–0.80) 15 Analysis of arterial tracing CI ≥ 15% 0.38
Muller et al. [8] 2010 PPV 25 41 15 16 57 0.61 (0.45–0.76) 0.94 (0.70–1.00) 0.77 (0.65–0.90) 7 Analysis of arterial tracing CI or ISV ≥ 15% 0.72
Lakhal et al. [31] 2011 PPV 19 26 33 39 65 0.73 (0.52–0.88) 0.85 (0.69–0.94) 0.75 (0.62–0.85) 5 Analysis of arterial tracing CO ≥ 10% 0.4
Monnet et al. [7] 2012 PPV 15 15 4 13 28 1.00 (0.78–1.00) 0.31 (0.09–0.61) 0.69 (± 0.10) 4 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 0.53
Cecconi et al. [33] 2012 PPV 17 20 8 11 31 0.85 (0.62–0.97) 0.73 (0.39–0.94) 0.87 (0.76–0.99) 13 Contour pulse wave analysis (LiDCO system) SV ≥ 15% 0.39
Yazigi et al. [34] 2012 PPV 33 41 14 19 60 0.80 (0.65–0.91) 0.74 (0.49–0.91) 0.85 (0.75–0.94) 11.5 Analysis of arterial tracing ISV ≥ 15% 0.68
Oliveira-Costa et al. [35] 2012 PPV 9 17 19 20 37 0.53 (0.28–0.77) 0.95 (0.75–1.00) 0.74 (0.56–0.90) 10 Analysis of arterial tracing CI ≥ 15% 0.45
Drvar et al. [36] 2013 PPV 26 26 20 20 46 1.00 (0.87–1.00) 1.00 (0.83–1.00) 1.00 (0.92–1.00) 12 Contour pulse wave analysis (LiDCO system) ISV ≥ 15% 0.57
Freitas et al. [37] 2013 PPV 17 19 10 11 40 0.89 (0.67–0.99) 0.91 (0.59–1.00) 0.91 (0.82–1.00) 6.5 Contour pulse wave analysis (computer software) CO ≥ 15% 0.47
Trepte et al. [38] 2013 PPV 25 41 25 31 72 0.61 (0.45–0.76) 0.81 (0.63–0.93) 0.70 (0.21–0.85) 10.1 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 10% 0.57
Guarracino et al. [39] 2014 PPV 29 30 11 20 50 0.97 (0.83–1.00) 0.55 (0.32–0.77) 0.85 (0.72–0.93) 12.5 Contour pulse wave analysis (computer software) CI ≥ 15% 0.6
Ibarra-Estrada et al. [41] 2015 PPV 15 30 15 19 59 0.50 (0.31–0.69) 0.79 (0.54–0.94) 0.63 (0.49–0.75) 14 Analysis of arterial tracing ISV ≥ 15% 0.51
Vistisen et al. [44] 2016 PPV 11 17 18 24 41 0.65 (0.38–0.86) 0.75 (0.53–0.90) 0.57 (0.39–0.75) 12 Analysis of arterial tracing SV ≥ 15% 0.41
Liu et al. [45] 2016 PPV 35 52 37 44 96 0.67 (0.53–0.80) 0.84 (0.70–0.93) 0.78 (0.69–0.86) 10 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CO ≥ 15% 0.54
Cherpanath el al [46] 2016 PPV 18 19 3 3 22 0.95 (0.74–1.00) 1.00 (0.29–1.00) 0.98 (0.82–1.00) 8 Contour pulse wave analysis (computer software) CO ≥ 15% 0.86
Oliveira et al. [47] 2016 PPV 8 9 11 11 20 0.89 (0.52–1.00) 1.00 (0.72–1.00) 0.92 12.4 Contour pulse wave analysis (computer software) VTI ≥ 15% 0.45
Myatra et al. [49] 2017 PPV 12 16 14 14 30 0.75 (0.48–0.93) 1.00 (0.77–1.00) 0.91 (0.81–1.00) 11.5 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 0.53
Yonis et al. [50] 2017 PPV 3 9 8 10 19 0.33 (0.07–0.70) 0.80 (0.44–0.97) 0.49 (0.21–0.77) 10 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 47.36
Yonis et al. [50] 2017 PPV 7 9 4 10 19 0.78–0.97) 0.40 (0.12–0.74) 0.52 (0.24–0.80) 10 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 47.36
Cecconi et al. [33] 2012 SVV 15 20 9 11 31 0.75 (0.51–0.91) 0.82 (0.48–0.98) 0.84 (0.71–0.96) 12.5 Contour pulse wave analysis (LiDCO system) SV ≥ 15% 39.00
Trepte et al. [38] 2013 SVV 26 41 23 31 72 0.63 (0.47–0.78) 0.74 (0.55–0.88) 0.72 (0.21–0.85) 9.9 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 10% 57.00
Drvar et al. [36] 2013 SVV 25 26 20 20 46 0.96 (0.80–1.00) 1.00 (0.83–1.00) 0.96 (0.85–0.99) 10 Contour pulse wave analysis (LiDCO system) ISV ≥ 15% 57.00
Kang et al. [40] 2014 SVV 24 27 24 27 54 0.89 (0.71–0.98) 0.89 (0.71–0.98) 0.90 (0.80–0.99) 13.5 Bioreactance (NICOM system) CO ≥ 7% 50.00
Kang et al. [40] 2014 SVV 25 27 23 27 54 0.93 (0.76–0.99) 0.85 (0.66–0.96) 0.93 (0.83–1.00) 13.5 Bioreactance (NICOM system) CO ≥ 7% 50.00
Kang et al. [40] 2014 SVV 25 27 25 27 54 0.93 (0.76–0.99) 0.93 (0.76–0.99) 0.94 (0.86–1.00) 13.5 Bioreactance (NICOM system) CO ≥ 7% 50.00
Ibarra-Estrada et al. [41] 2015 SVV 23 30 13 19 59 0.77 (0.58–0.90) 0.68 (0.43–0.87) 0.72 (0.59–0.83) 16 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) ISV ≥ 15% 51.00
Angappan et al. [42] 2015 SVV 23 29 14 16 45 0.79 (0.60–0.92) 0.88 (0.62–0.98) 0.71 (0.56–0.84) 13 Contour pulse wave analysis (Vigileo) CI ≥ 15% 64.00
Cherpanath et al. [46] 2016 SVV 17 19 3 3 22 0.89 (0.67–0.99) 1.00 (0.29–1.00) 0.95 (0.76–0.99) 9 Contour pulse wave analysis (computer software) CO ≥ 15% 86.00
Myatra et al. [49] 2017 SVV 12 16 13 14 30 0.75 (0.48–0.93) 0.93 (0.66–1.00) 0.92 (0.82–1.00) 10.5 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 53.00
Guo-Guang Ma et al. [52] 2018 SVV 32 35 33 35 70 0.91 (0.77–0.98) 0.94 (0.81–0.99) 0.97 (0.89–0.99) 12 Contour pulse wave analysis (Vigileo) SV ≥ 15% 50.00
Monnet et al. [7] 2012 PLR 14 15 13 13 28 0.93 (0.68–1.00) 1.00 (0.75–1.00) 0.94 (± 0.05) CI ≥ 10 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 53.00
Ibarra-Estrada et al. [41] 2015 PLR 19 30 14 19 59 0.63 (0.44–0.80) 0.74 (0.49–0.91) 0.69 (0.56–0.80) ISV ≥ 15 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) ISV ≥ 15% 51.00
Sobczyk et al. [48] 2016 PLR 19 24 9 11 35 0.79 (0.58–0.93) 0.82 (0.48–0.98) 0.80 CO ≥ 15 CO (echocardiogram) CO ≥ 15% 68.57
Guo-Guang Ma et al. [52] 2018 PLR 35 35 29 35 70 1.00 (0.90–1.00) 0.83 (0.66–0.93) 0.91 (0.82–0.97) SV ≥ 12.84 Contour pulse wave analysis (Vigileo) SV ≥ 15% 50.00
Monnet et al. [7] 2012 EEOT 14 15 12 13 28 0.93 (0.68–1.00) 0.92 (0.64–1.00) 0.93 (± 0.05) CI ≥ 5 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 53.00
Myatra et al. [49] 2017 EEOT 14 16 13 14 30 0.88 (0.62–0.98) 0.93 (0.66–1.00) 0.95 (0.88–1.00) Ci ≥ 4.1 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 53.00
Jozwiak et al. [51] 2017 EEOT 14 15 15 15 30 0.93 (0.68–1.00) 1.00 (0.78–1.00) 0.98 (0.85–1.00) CI ≥ 4 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 50.00
Jozwiak et al. [51] 2017 EEOT 14 15 15 15 30 0.93 (0.68–1.00) 1.00 (0.78–1.00) 0.93 (0.78–0.99) VTI ≥ 5 VTI (echocardiogram) CI ≥ 15% 50.00
Georges et al. [53] 2018 EEOT 25 28 21 22 50 0.89 (0.72–0.98) 0.95 (0.77–1.00) 0.96 (± 0.03) VTI ≥ 9 VTI (echocardiogram) CO ≥ 15% 56.00
Georges et al. [53] 2018 EEOT 18 28 17 22 50 0.64 (0.44–0.81) 0.77 (0.55–0.92) 0.70 (± 0.07) VMax ≥ 8.5 VMax (echocardiogram) CO ≥ 15% 56.00
Depret et al. [54] 2019 EEOT 12 14 13 14 28 0.86 (0.57–0.98) 0.93 (0.66–1.00) 0.95 (0.79–0.99) CI ≥ 3 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 50.00
Depret et al. [54] 2019 EEOT 14 14 14 14 28 1.00 (0.77–1.00) 1.00 (0.77–1.00) 1.00 (0.88–1.00) CI ≥ 4 CI (esophageal Doppler) CI ≥ 15% 50.00
Depret et al. [54] 2019 EEOT 10 14 12 14 28 0.71 (0.42–0.92) 0.86 (0.57–0.98) 0.80 (0.61–0.93) FTC ≥ 3 FTC (esophageal Doppler) CI ≥ 15% 50.00
Depret et al. [54] 2019 EEOT 10 14 12 14 28 0.71 (0.42–0.92) 0.86 (0.57–0.98) 0.75 (0.55–0.89) VMax ≥ 2 VMax (esophageal Doppler) CI ≥ 15% 50.00
Muller et al. [32] 2011 Mini-fluid challenge 20 21 14 18 39 0.95 (0.76–1.00) 0.78 (0.52–0.94) 0.92 (0.78–0.98) VTI ≥ 3 VTI (echocardiogram) VTI ≥ 15% 54.00
Mallat et al. [43] 2015 Mini-fluid challenge 19 22 24 27 49 0.86 (0.65–0.97) 0.89 (0.71–0.98) 0.91 (0.81–0.98) Changes in SVV of -2 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 45.00
Mallat et al. [43] 2015 Mini-fluid challenge 19 22 23 27 49 0.86 (0.65–0.97) 0.85 (0.66–0.96) 0.92 (0.81–0.98) Changes in PPV of -3 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 45.00
Mallat et al. [43] 2015 Mini-fluid challenge 17 22 20 27 49 0.77 (0.55–0.92) 0.74 (0.54–0.89) 0.78 (0.64–0.88) CI ≥ 5.2 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 45.00
Fot et al. [55] 2019 Mini-fluid challenge 12 14 12 18 32 0.86 (0.57–0.98) 0.67 (0.41–0.87) 0.77 Changes in PPV of -2 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 43.00
Fot el al [55] 2019 Mini-fluid challenge 11 14 12 18 32 0.79 (0.49–0.95) 0.67 (0.41–0.87) 0.75 Changes in SVV of -2 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 43.00
Myatra et al. [49] 2017 Tidal volume challenge 15 16 14 14 30 0.94 (0.70–1.00) 1.00 (0.77–1.00) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) Changes in PPV of 3.5 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 53.00
Myatra et al. [49] 2017 Tidal volume challenge 14 16 14 14 30 0.88 (0.62–0.98) 1.00 (0.77–1.00) 0.97 (0.92–1.00) Changes in SVV of 2.5 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 53.00
Yonis et al. [50] 2017 Tidal volume challenge 9 9 4 10 19 1.00 (0.66–1.00) 0.40 (0.12–0.74) 0.59 (0.31–0.88) Changes in PPV of 29 Contour pulse wave analysis (PiCCO system) CI ≥ 15% 47.36
Moretti et al. [30] 2010 ΔIVC 12 17 12 12 29 0.71 (0.44–0.90) 1.00 (0.74–1.00) 0.90 16 Ultrasonography CI ≥ 15% 58.00
De Oliveira et al. [47] 2016 ΔIVC 6 9 11 11 20 0.67 (0.30–0.93) 1.00 (0.72–1.00) 0.84 (± 0.10) 16 Ultrasonography VTI ≥ 15% 45.00
Sobczyk et al. [48] 2016 ΔIVC 20 24 8 11 35 0.83 (0.63–0.95) 0.73 (0.39–0.94) 0.73 18 Ultrasonography CO ≥ 15% 68.57
Guo-Guang et al. [52] 2018 ΔIVC 30 35 30 35 70 0.86 (0.70–0.95) 0.86 (0.70–0.95) 0.83 (0.72–0.91) 13.39 Ultrasonography SV ≥ 15% 50.00
  1. Values are expressed as pooled value (95% confidence interval). CI, cardiac index; CO, cardiac output; PAC, pulmonary artery catheter; PiCCO; pulse contour cardiac output; EEOT, end expiratory occlusion; FTC, flow time corrected; ISV, index stroke volume; n1, number of patient with positive fluid responsiveness; n2, number of patients with negative fluid responsiveness; NR, not reported; PLR, passive leg raising; PPV, pression pulse variation; SV, stroke volume; SVV, stroke volume variability; tn, true negative; tp, true positive; VTI, velocity time integral; VMax, peak velocity; ΔIVC, inferior vena cava variability. Values are expressed as pooled data (95% confidence interval) or median (IQR)