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Table 3 FF-CPAP therapy conditions and patients’ outcome

From: Continuous positive airway pressure for respiratory support during COVID-19 pandemic: a frugal approach from bench to bedside

  All patients (n = 85) FF-CPAP alone (n = 31) FF-CPAP followed by intubation (n = 54) P value
Time between symptoms onset and FF-CPAP initiation, days 9 (7–13) 11 (7–13) 9 (7–12) 0.09
Time between hospital admission and FF-CPAP initiation, days 1 (0–4) 1 (0–4) 1 (0–4) 0.85
Predefined intubation criteria upon FF-CPAP initiation, n (%) 36 (42.6) 13 (41.9) 23 (42.6) > 0.99
 Vital signs during the first hour of FF-CPAP
 Oxygen flow rate, L/min 15 (15–15) 15 (15–15) 15 (15–30) 0.84
 Respiratory rate, breaths/min 30 (25–38) 29 (25–32) 32 (24–42) 0.04
 SpO2, % 96 (93–98) 96 (95–98) 95 (92–98) 0.05
 Heart rate, beats/min 86 (72–101) 86 (72–96) 86 (72–107) 0.53
Treatment received during FF-CPAP therapy, n (%)
 Lopinavir/ritonavir 25 (29.8) 6 (19.4) 19 (35.8) 0.14
 Hydroxychloroquine 51 (60.7) 16 (51.6) 35 (66) 0.25
 Tocilizumab 12 (14.6) 7 (22.6) 5 (9.8) 0.20
 Corticosteroids 8 (9.5) 4 (12.9) 4 (7.5) 0.46
Outcome
 FF-CPAP duration, days 2 (1–4) 4 (1.5–5.5) 2 (1–3) 0.02
 Admission to the ICU, n (%) 68 (80) 14 (45.2) 54 (100) < 0.001
 28-day mortality, n (%) 23 (27.1) 0 23 (44.2) < 0.001
 28-day VFD, days 21 (0–26)  
  1. FF-CPAP filter frugal continuous positive airway pressure (see text for definition), VFD ventilator-free days