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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Severe liver dysfunction complicating course of COVID-19 in the critically ill: multifactorial cause or direct viral effect?

Variables All (n = 72) No liver dysfunction (n = 50) Severe liver dysfunction (n = 22) p-value
Age (years) 63 (54–73) 64 (55–73) 62 (51–73) 0.937
Males 51 (71) 34 (68) 17 (77) 0.308
BMI (kg/m2) 27.3 (24.8–31.7) 27.3 (24.9–30.8) 27.3 (24.3–33.1) 0.921
COVID-19 characteristics
 Symptoms to ICU (days) 6.9 (2–13.8) 6.7 (2.4–14.2) 6.5 (1.6–11.4) 0.476
  Symptoms—before ICU
   Cough 29 (40) 20 (40) 9 (41) 0.783
   Productive cough 8 (11) 4 (8) 4 (18) 0.214
   Fever 34 (47) 23 (46) 11 (50) 0.581
   Shortness of breath 35 (49) 26 (52) 9 (41) 0.579
    Fatigue 15 (21) 10 (20) 5 (23) 0.748
Comorbidities
 Charlson comorb. index, pts 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 0.480
 Arterial hypertension (n, %) 35 (49) 26 (52) 9 (41) 0.245
Pre-existing medication
   ACE inhibitor 15 (21) 12 (24) 3 (14) 0.255
   Angiotensin receptor blocker 8 (11) 4 (8) 4 (18) 0.189
 Chronic kidney disease 8 (11) 6 (12) 2 (9) 0.524
 Coronary heart disease 8 (11) 6 (12) 2 (9) 0.524
 Congestive heart failure 2 (3) 1 (2) 1 (5) 0.527
 Diabetes mellitus 23 (32) 18 (36) 5 (23) 0.161
 Chronic lung disease 10 (14) 8 (16) 2 (9) 0.341
Vital functions—admission
 Body temperature (C°) 37.3 (36.6–38.1) 37.4 (36.7–38.1) 37.3 (36.5–37.8) 0.482
 Heart rate (beats/minute) 92 (81–108) 91 (81–108) 96 (80–107) 0.531
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 83 (72–100) 82 (74–103) 84 (71–90) 0.337
 Vasopressor use 28 (39) 20 (40) 8 (36) 0.466
Respiratory support—admission
 paO2/FiO2 112 (84–168) 107 (83–168) 121 (102–160) 0.570
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 25 (35) 19 (38) 6 (27) 0.271
 Non-invasive ventilation 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) -
 High-flow nasal cannula 9 (13) 4 (8) 5 (23) 0.091
Laboratory results—admission
 AST (U/l) 48 (30–75.8) 43 (29–70) 56 (42–78) 0.035
 ALT (U/l) 34 (22–59) 31 (22–57) 44 (44–76) 0.271
 Bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.6 (0.4–0.8) 0.5 (0.4–0.7) 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 0.002
Outcome
 Duration ICU stay (days) 13 (8.2–24.1) 12.4 (5.9–21.6) 16.8 (11.3–25.2) 0.285
 Died in ICU 23 (32) 8 (16) 15 (68)  < 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as n (%) or median (interquartile range)
  2. kg kilogram, m meter, ICU intensive care unit, BMI body mass index, pts points, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase; mg, milligram;