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Table 2 ICU characteristics of patients with and without severe liver dysfunction

From: Severe liver dysfunction complicating course of COVID-19 in the critically ill: multifactorial cause or direct viral effect?

Variables All (n = 72) No liver dysfunction (n = 50) Severe liver dysfunction (n = 22) p-value
Disease severity
 SAPS II—admission (pts.) 41 (35–48.8) 40 (32–45) 48 (39–52) 0.006
 SOFA—admission (pts.) 6 (3–11) 6 (3–11) 7 (3–9) 0.938
 SOFA—24 h (pts.) 8 (4–13) 7 (3–11) 10 (7–15) 0.075
Respiratory support
 Invasive MV 53 (74) 32 (64) 21 (95) 0.004
 Duration of MV (days) 12.5 (7.3–25.8) 13 (6–27) 12 (8–25) 0.965
 Non-invasive ventilation 7 (10) 3 (6) 4 (18) 0.182
 High-flow nasal cannula 25 (35) 16 (32) 9 (41) 0.454
 ECMO 12 (17) 6 (12) 6 (27) 0.106
 Worst paO2/FiO2 110 (71–151) 117 (83–155) 82 (58–114) 0.033
ARDS
 No ARDS 22 (31) 20 (40) 2 (9) 0.007
 Mild 3 (4) 2 (4) 1 (5) 0.651
 Moderate 19 (26) 13 (26) 6 (27) 0.258
 Severe 28 (39) 15 (30) 13 (59) 0.225
ARDS—management
 Prone positioning 41 (57) 25 (50) 16 (73) 0.036
 Neuromuscular blockade 18 (25) 10 (20) 8 (36) 0.001
 Inhaled vasodilator 20 (28) 8 (16) 12 (55) 0.111
 Glucocorticoid therapy 26 (36) 12 (24) 14 (64) 0.001
Procedures/therapies
 Vasopressors 57 (79) 36 (72) 21 (95) 0.027
 Renal replacement therapy 34 (47) 15 (30) 19 (86)  < 0.001
 Therapeutic anticoagulation 33 (46) 19 (38) 14 (64) 0.166
 Antibiotic therapy 69 (96) 48 (96) 21 (95) 0.493
  Experimental therapy
   Lopinavir, ritonavir 8 (11) 5 (10) 3 (14) 0.187
   Remdesivir 2 (3) 1 (2) 1 (5) 0.521
   Tocilizumab 3 (4) 0 (0) 3 (14) 0.026
   Plasma exchange 2 (3) 1 (2) 1 (5) 0.521
   Immunoglobulins 2 (3) 2 (4) 0 (0) 0.479
Laboratory results
 AST—peak (U/l) 140 (63–326) 88 (50–147) 746 (279–4293)  < 0.001
 ALT—peak (U/l) 79 (39–172) 59 (32–103) 348 (127–720)  < 0.001
 Bilirubin—peak (mg/dl) 0.8 (0.6–1.8) 0.5 (0.4–0.7) 2.6 (1.7–4.5)  < 0.001
 pH—nadir 7.27 (7.14–7.39) 7.3 (7.19–7.39) 7.19 (7.07–7.29) 0.015
 Lactate—peak 2.5 (1.7–5) 1.9 (1.7–2.9) 6.4 (3.4–12.8)  < 0.001
 INR—admission 1.1 (1–1.2) 1.1 (1–1.1) 1.1 (1.03–1.2) 0.082
 Thrombocytes—admission 204 (116–284) 227 (140–300) 161 (60–238) 0.078
 Ferritin—admission 1493 (911–3009) 1249 (768–2326) 2395 (1126–6253) 0.030
 IL-6—admission 134 (56–412) 104 (54–243) 279 (92–975) 0.016
 LDH—admission 446 (364–603) 424 (364–577) 566 (380–681) 0.245
Complications—ICU stay
 Pulmonary embolism 3 (4) 1 (2) 2 (9) 0.219
 Deep vein thrombosis 11 (15) 7 (14) 4 (18) 0.448
 Cardiac arrest 11 (15) 5 (10) 6 (27) 0.068
 Septic shock 32 (44) 16 (32) 16 (73) 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as n (%) or median (interquartile range)
  2. ICU intensive care unit, BMI body mass index, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase;