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Fig. 2 | Annals of Intensive Care

Fig. 2

From: Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) as a biomarker of COVID-19 disease severity and indicator of the need for mechanical ventilation, ARDS and mortality

Fig. 2

Variation of sRAGE levels with regard to disease severity. sRAGE values were subject to natural log transformation (sRAGE Ln) due to highly skewed distribution. The effect of disease severity on sRAGE Ln level for the mild, moderate and severe cohorts was significant [F*(2, 64.21) = 36.40, p < 0.001], sRAGE Ln increases with disease severity (a). sRAGE Ln was significantly higher in patients needing HFNO/MV [t(36.22) = − 6.81, p < 0.001] (b). sRAGE Ln was significantly higher in patients needing dialysis [U(Ndialysis = 8, Nno dialysis = 156) = 1171.00, z = 4.18, p < 0.001] (c). sRAGE Ln was significantly higher in patients who needed catecholamine therapy [U(Ncatecholamine = 13, Nno catecholamine = 151) = 1817.00, z = 5.09, p < 0.001] (d). There was a significant strong positive correlation between sRAGE and SOFA score [rs (162) = − 0.525, p < 0.001] (e). The effect of maximum oxygen and ventilation therapy required on sRAGE Ln for patients with no, ≤ 4L/min and HFNO as well as MV was significant [F*(3, 47.03) = 27.24, p < 0.001] (f). The effect of ARDS severity on sRAGE Ln for patients with no, moderate and severe ARDS was significant [F*(2, 29.69) = 26.53, p < 0.0001], sRAGE Ln increases with ARDS severity (g). There was a significant, moderately strong negative correlation between sRAGE and the Horowitz Index [rs (85) = − 0.474, p < 0.001] (h). sRAGE Ln was significantly higher in patients who died [U(Ndeath = 11, Nsurvival = 153) = 1520.50, z = 4.46, p < 0.001] (i). There was no statistically significant interaction between the effects of type of pneumonia and disease severity on sRAGE Ln. Disease severity has a significant effect on sRAGE Ln but not the type of pneumonia (j). sRAGE Ln: natural log transformed sRAGE; high-flow nasal oxygen or mechanical ventilation; MV: mechanical ventilation

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