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Table 1 Main advantages and limitations of dynamic indices and maneuvers developed to predict fluid responsiveness (chronologic order from top to bottom)

From: Perioperative hemodynamic optimization: from guidelines to implementation—an experts’ opinion paper

Methods (year of first validation) Main advantages Main limitations
PPV (2000) Automatically calculated by most bedside monitors Need for general anesthesia, an arterial line and a tidal volume > 7 ml/kg
SVV (2001) Automatically calculated by most CO monitors Need for a CO monitor, general anesthesia, an arterial line and a tidal volume > 7 ml/kg
Changes in CO during a PLR maneuver (2006) Useful when Vt < 7 ml/kg IBW Need for a CO monitor, PLR maneuver difficult to perform during surgery
PVI (2008) Non-invasive from a pulse ox Need for general anesthesia and a tidal volume > 7 ml/kg, influenced by peripheral perfusion
Changes in SV during an EEO test (2009) Useful when Vt < 7 ml/kg IBW Need for a CO monitor, prone to error measurements (small magnitude of changes in SV)
Changes in SV during a mini-fluid challenge (2011) Useful when Vt < 7 ml/kg IBW Need for a CO monitor, prone to error measurements (small magnitude of changes in SV)
Changes in PPV during a mini-fluid challenge (2015) Useful when Vt < 7 ml/kg IBW Prone to error measurements (small magnitude of changes in PPV)
Changes in PPV during a Vt challenge (2017) Useful when Vt < 7 ml/kg IBW Prone to error measurements (small magnitude of changes in PPV)
Changes in SV during a LRM (2017) Useful when Vt < 7 ml/kg IBW Need for a CO monitor
Changes in PI during a PLR maneuver (2019) Useful when Vt < 7 ml/kg IBW, non-invasive (pulse ox) Influenced by peripheral perfusion, PLR maneuver difficult to perform during surgery
Low level of scientific validation
Changes in PI during a LRM (2020) Useful when Vt < 7 ml/kg IBW, non-invasive (pulse ox) Influenced by peripheral perfusion
Low level of scientific validation
  1. CO cardiac output, EEO end-expiratory occlusion, IBW ideal body weight, LRM lung recruitment maneuver, PI perfusion index, PLR passive leg raising, PPV pulse pressure variation, Pulse ox pulse oximetry, PVI pleth variability index, SV stroke volume, SVV stroke volume variation, Vt tidal volume