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Table 3 Invasive, mini-invasive, and non-invasive cardiac output monitoring technologies

From: Perioperative hemodynamic optimization: from guidelines to implementation—an experts’ opinion paper

Device Technology Properties Calibration
Cardio-Q (Gamida) Esophageal Doppler Mini-invasive, continuous, operator-dependent No
NICO (Novametrix) Fick principle applied to CO2 Non-invasive, discontinuous, operator-independent No
PiCCO (Getinge)
Volume View (Edwards)
Transpulmonary thermodilution Invasive, discontinuous, operator-independent Yes
Niccomo (Imedex)
Physioflow (Manatec)
ECOM (ConMed)
Bioimpedance Non-invasive, continuous, operator-independent No
NICOM (Baxter) Bioreactance Non-invasive, continuous, operator-independent No
Vigileo/Flotrac (Edwards)
Pulsioflex/ProAQT (Getinge)
MostCare (Vygon)
LIDCOrapid (LIDCO Ltd)
Pulse contour analysis Mini-invasive, continuous, operator-independent Optional
ClearSight (Edwards)
NICCI (Getinge)
Digital photoplethysmography Non-invasive, continuous, operator-independent No
esCCO (Nihon Kohden) Pulse wave transit time Non-invasive, continuous, operator-independent Optional