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Table 5 Results of test–retest reliability and validity of the PS-ICU scale analyses

From: An international tool to measure perceived stressors in intensive care units: the PS-ICU scale

  PS-ICU T1 scores (with Cronbach’s alpha in parentheses)
Factor 1 (α = 0.83; ω = 0.84) Factor 2 (α = 0.83; ω = 0.83) Factor 3 (α = 0.79; ω = 0.80) Factor 4 (α = 0.81; ω = 0.82) Factor 5 (α = 0.76; ω = 0.77) Factor 6 (α = 0.80; ω = 0.80) General factor (α = 0.95; ω = 0.95)
Correlation between factors (T1 test scores)
 Factor 2 (/4) 0.57***      
 Factor 3 (/4) 0.33*** 0.49***     
 Factor 4 (/4) 0.61*** 0.56*** 0.44***    
 Factor 5 (/4) 0.51*** 0.49*** 0.44*** 0.54***   
 Factor 6 (/4) 0.61*** 0.57*** 0.48*** 0.58*** 0.54***  
Test–retest reliability (intraclass correlations with T2 retest scores)
 Without significant event only (n = 197) 0.83 0.85 0.85 0.90 0.87 0.83 0.90
 With significant event only (n = 67) 0.85 0.88 0.91 0.89 0.89 0.84 0.91
Convergent validity (correlations with the JCQ) (n = 233)
 Psychological demands (/36) 0.240*** 0.241*** 0.303*** 0.438*** 0.355*** 0.333*** 0.409***
 Decisional latitude (/36) − 0.149** − 0.117* − 0.118* − 0.200*** − 0.258*** − 0.227*** − 0.228***
 Colleagues’ support (/24) − 0.191*** − 0.122* 0.050 − 0.182*** − 0.308*** − 0.120* − 0.193***
 Hierarchical support (/20) − 0.084 − 0.082 − 0.082 − 0.214*** − 0.289*** − 0.141** − 0.192***
Concurrent validity (correlations with the MBI-HSS) (n = 249)
 Emotional exhaustion (/54) 0.365*** 0.386*** 0.356*** .586*** 0.469*** 0.324*** 0.539***
 Depersonalization (/30) 0.201*** 0.067 0.208*** 0.193*** 0.193*** 0.172*** 0.226***
 Personal accomplishment (/48) − 0.094 − 0.004 − 0.207*** − 0.085 − 0.195*** − 0.117* − 0.143**
  1. Factor 1 = lack of fit with families and the organizational functioning, Factor 2 = patient- and family-related emotional load; Factor 3 = complex/at risk situations and skill-related issues; Factor 4 = workload and human resource management issues; Factor 5 = difficulties related to team working; Factor 6 = suboptimal care situations
  2. For the PS-ICU scale, the higher the factor scores are, the more intense the stress
  3. For the JCQ dimensions, the higher the scores are, the higher the levels of demand, flexibility, and support
  4. For the MBI-HSS dimensions, the higher the scores on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions, the more the scores reflect burnout. Conversely, the higher the scores on personal accomplishment dimension, the more the scores reflect a low or non-existent state of burnout
  5. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05