Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical and biological characteristics of patients according to WIND classification

From: Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency during difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation

Variables Total (n = 76) WIND classification p value
Simple (n = 21) Difficult (n = 33) Prolonged (n = 22)
Age (years) 76 61.0 (± 14.2) 63.4 (± 13.2) 63.2 (± 14.3) 0.81
Female gender 76 6 (28.6%) 13 (39.4%) 8 (36.4%) 0.72
Body mass index (kg/m2) 61 26.0 (23.5–30.0) 28.6 (22.8–35.7) 25.6 (22.9–32.5) 0.64
SAPS-II at admission 76 54 (34–65) 53 (41–71) 50 (41–70) 0.43
Comorbidities
 COPD 76 3 (14.7%) 10 (30.3%) 7 (31.8%) 0.34
 Restrictive lung disease 76 2 (9.5%) 6 (18.2%) 1 (4.6%) 0.29
 Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 76 6 (28.6%) 7 (21.2%) 1 (4.6%) 0.11
 Asthma 76 2 (9.5%) 0 (0%) 1 (4.6%) 0.21
 Current smoker 76 9 (42.9%) 16 (48.5%) 15 (68.2%) 0.21
 Central nervous system disease 76 2 (9.5%) 4 (12.1%) 3 (13.6%) 0.91
 Peripheral neuropathy 76 0 (0%) 1 (3.0%) 1 (4.6%) 0.64
 Mental illness 76 2 (9.5%) 3 (9.1%) 1 (4.6%) 0.79
 HF with preserved ejection fraction 76 6 (28.6%) 8 (24.2%) 3 (13.6%) 0.47
 HF with reduced ejection fraction 76 1 (4.8%) 3 (9.1%) 7 (31.8%) 0.02
 Atrial fibrillation 76 2 (9.5%) 8 (24.2%) 7 (31.8%) 0.20
 Arterial hypertension 76 12 (57.1%) 20 (60.6%) 11 (50%) 0.74
 Valvular heart disease 76 4 (19.1%) 4 (12.1%) 3 (13.6%) 0.77
 Coronary artery disease 76 5 (23.8%) 6 (18.2%) 6 (27.3%) 0.72
 Pulmonary hypertension 76 1 (4.8%) 3 (9.1%) 1 (4.6%) 0.74
Reason for mechanical ventilation 76     0.46
 Coma   3 (14.7%) 4 (12.1%) 1 (4.6%)  
 Septic shock   3 (14.7%) 2 (6.1%) 6 (27.3%)  
 COPD exacerbation   2 (9.5%) 2 (6.1%) 1 (4.6%)  
 Pneumonia   3 (14.7%) 10 (30.3%) 5 (22.7%)  
 Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema   3 (14.7%) 2 (6.1%) 1 (4.6%)  
 Cardiac arrest   3 (14.7%) 8 (24.2%) 2 (9.1%)  
 Surgery   1 (4.8%) 4 (12.1%) 3 (13.6%)  
 Others   3 (14.7%) 1 (3.0%) 3 (13.6%)  
Complications in ICU before weaning
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome 76 7 (33.3%) 12 (36.4%) 12 (54.6%) 0.29
 Septic shock 76 9 (42.9%) 12 (36.4%) 16 (72.7%) 0.03
 Ventilator-associated pneumonia 76 4 (19.1%) 9 (27.3%) 13 (59.1%) 0.01
 Atrial fibrillation 76 4 (19.1%) 9 (27.3%) 11 (50%) 0.11
 Ventilation duration before first SBT (d) 76 4 (3–10) 4 (2–11) 13 (4–20) < 0.01
 Fluid balance before first SBT (L) 76 3.7 (0.9–9.3) 3.5 (0.9–9.7) 9.2 (2.4–18.5) 0.046
 SOFA before weaning 76 3 (2–7) 3 (2–5) 4 (3–6) 0.19
 Success of second SBT 76 12 (57.1%) 11 (33.3%) 3 (13.6%) 0.01
Biological data before weaning
 Protidemia (g/L) 76 60.7 (± 10.0) 60.2 (± 10.0) 60.8 (± 8.0) 0.97
 Creatinine (μmol/L) 76 87 (75–128) 85 (58–157) 75 (56–123) 0.34
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 76 10.0 (8.1–11.0) 9.5 (8.3–10.9) 8.6 (7.8–10.6) 0.27
 White blood count (g/L) 76 12.8 (9.1–17.6) 10.1 (8.6–14.5) 12.7 (8.4–18.2) 0.49
 Procalcitonin (mg/L) 73 1.1 (0.5–5.0) 0.5 (0.2–1.4) 0.6 (0.2–1.5) 0.15
Outcomes
 Success extubation 76 21 (100%) 30 (90.9%) 6 (27.3%) < 0.01
 Weaning duration (d) 76 1 (1–1) 3 (2–5) 17 (9–33) < 0.01
 Ventilation duration (d) 76 5 (3–7) 7 (6–14) 33 (20–53) < 0.01
 ICU length of stay (d) 76 7 (5–12) 13 (9–20) 35 (26–58) < 0.01
 Hospital length of stay (d) 76 20 (13–30) 23 (15–49) 59 (32–) < 0.01
 ICU mortality 76 0 (0%) 3 (9.1%) 11 (50%) < 0.01
  1. Values are expressed as mean (± SD) or median (IQR) as appropriate
  2. SAPS-II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HF heart failure, SBT spontaneous breathing trial, SOFA score Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ICU intensive care unit