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Table 3 Competing-risk regression analysis for liberation from mechanical ventilation with death as the competing event

From: Sustained oxygenation improvement after first prone positioning is associated with liberation from mechanical ventilation and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients: a cohort study

Variable (reference level) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
SHR 95% CI P SHR 95% CI P
Age 0.964 0.943–0.986 0.002 0.971 0.946–0.996 0.025
Sex (male) 0.679 0.305–1.511 0.342   
BMI 1.011 0.959–1.065 0.689   
SOFA score at admission 0.865 0.770–0.970 0.013   
SAPS II score 0.970 0.937–1.004 0.076   
Hypertension (yes) 0.700 0.507–0.967 0.031   
Chronic ischemic heart disease (yes) 0.468 0.146–1.494 0.200   
COPD (oxygen therapy/CPAP) (yes) 0.845 0.208–3.431 0.814   
Chronic kidney disease (yes) 1.216 0.281–5.266 0.793   
Diabetes (yes) 0.768 0.451–1.310 0.333   
Chronic liver disease (MELD > 10) 1.054 0.295–3.765 0.936   
Need for renal replacement therapy (yes) 0.208 0.093–0.466 0.001 0.244 0.113–0.526  < 0.001
Late onset VAP (yes) 0.290 0.174–0.483  < 0.001 0.280 0.174–0.450  < 0.001
CRS < 40 ml/cmH2O in the first 5 days 1.021 0.990–1.053 0.195   
Steroid use (yes) 1.860 0.852–4.060 0.119   
PaO2/FiO2 variation after pronationb 1.370 1.187–1.582  < 0.001 1.563 1.329–1.838  < 0.001
Cardiovascular complications (yes) 0.180 0.0752–0.433  < 0.001 0.194 0.088–0.427  < 0.001
Neurologic complications (yes) 0.376 0.165–0.856 0.020 0.296 0.110–0.798 0.016
Digestive complications (yes) 0.267 0.046–1.583 0.146   
Extra-pulmonary infections (yes) 0.698 0.486–1.000 0.050   
DP before prone positioning 0.971 0.890–1.058 0.500   
ARDS PaO2/FiO2 class (severe)a 1.775 1.143–2.755 0.011 1.738 1.116–2.705 0.014
Infection during ICU stay (yes) 0.698 0.486–1.000 0.050   
  1. Significant P values are highlighted in bold
  2. SHR subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR 1 no association between the covariate and the corresponding cumulative incidence function, SHR > 1 an increase of the covariate value is associated with an increased risk of liberation from mechanical ventilation, SHR < 1 implies the opposite), DP driving pressure, VAP ventilator associated pneumonia, CRS compliance of the respiratory system, BMI Body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, ICU intensive care unit
  3. aPer class points increase, class 1 = severe ARDS, class 2 = moderate ARDS. Reference level in branches for each covariate
  4. bPer quartile variation, 1st quartile (< 19%), 2nd quartile (19–49%), 3rd quartile (49–100%), 4th quartile (> 100%)