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Table 5 Hazard ratios for the risk of death up to day 28 after admission to ICU/ICW

From: Seasonal burden of severe influenza virus infection in the critically ill patients, using the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris clinical data warehouse: a pilot study

Variable Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
HR (95% CI) p First model
HR (95% CI)
Second model
HR (95% CI)
Age (per 10 years) 1.42 (1.18–1.71) 0.0002
Age > 65 years 1.70 (1.03–2.81) 0.039 1.79 (1.02–3.16)*
Sex (male) 1.20 (0.72–2.00) 0.49
Obesity 1.11 (0.48–2.58) 0.81
Comorbid conditions 1.33 (0.81–2.18) 0.26 1.16 (0.69–1.93) 1.17 (0.70–1.97)
 Neoplastic disease 1.50 (0.80–2.82) 0.20
 Congestive heart failure 1.00 (0.52–1.92) 0.99
 Cerebrovascular disease 1.78 (0.72–4.45) 0.21
 Renal disease 1.36 (0.75–2.46) 0.31
 Liver disease 6.64 (2.05–21.54) 0.0016
Status of influenza vaccination 1.03 (0.48–2.21) 0.94
At least one factor targeted by the vaccinationa 1.87 (0.75–4.67) 0.18
Time to referral from symptoms onset (per day) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.99
Treatments before admission 0.89 (0.52–1.52) 0.67   
 Antimicrobial drugs 0.81 (0.49–1.34) 0.41
  Antibiotics 0.85 (0.51–1.39) 0.51
  Antiviral therapy (oseltamivir) 0.70 (0.37–1.31) 0.26
 Anti-inflammatory drugs 0.89 (0.44–1.8) 0.75
  Steroids 0.74 (0.32–1.7) 0.47
  NSAIDs 1.62 (0.59–4.41) 0.35
Physical exam during the first 24 h of ICU/ICW admission
 Pulse ≥ 125 per minute 1.21 (0.71–2.06) 0.48
 Temperature < 35 °C or ≥ 40 °C 3.37 (1.96–5.81) 0.00002 3.06 (1.73–5.42)** 2.94 (1.67–5.19)**
 Respiratory rate ≥ 30 per minute or MV 1.49 (0.85–2.62) 0.17
 Systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure < 60 mm Hg or vasopressors 2.4 (1.44–3.99) 0.0007
 Renal replacement therapy 2.6 (1.32–5.11) 0.0056
 Altered mental status (CGS < 14) 1.05 (0.6–1.84) 0.87
Initial severity (scores)
 SAPS2 (points) 1.04 (1.03–1.05) < 10e−5
 SOFA (points) 1.15 (1.09–1.21) < 10e−5 1.16 (1.10–1.23)**
 Pneumonia Severity Index, Class IV–V 7.30 (1.04–51.31) 0.046
 CURB65 > 2 2.20 (1.30–3.75) 0.0035 1.30 (1.06–1.60)*
Antiviral therapy
 Oseltamivir (ongoing or introduced after ICU admission) 0.32 (0.18–0.56) 0.00017 0.45 (0.24–0.85)* 0.34 (0.19–0.61)**
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.001
  2. aPregnancy, obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m2), 65-year-old subjects and over, nursing home residency regardless of age, type 1 and 2 diabetes, chronic respiratory disease (chronic broncho-pulmonary diseases including asthma, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia and cystic fibrosis, chronic respiratory insufficiency), cardiac disease (congenital heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, severe arrhythmia, coronary disease), neurological or muscle disease (stroke, severe forms of neurological and muscular disorders, para and tetraplegia with diaphragmatic involvement), renal disease (severe chronic renal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome), immunosuppressive status (primary or acquired immune deficiency, except regular treatment with immunoglobulins, HIV infection and AIDS, solid transplantation), and others (liver disease, sickle cell disease, healthcare professionals). See Additional file 1: Table S2