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Table 1 Country, hospital, ICU and patient characteristics across subgroups

From: Outcomes of ICU patients with and without perceptions of excessive care: a comparison between cancer and non-cancer patients

  Uncontrolled cancer (n = 117) Controlled cancer (n = 270) Without cancer (n = 1254) P-value
Country characteristics
 Number of ICU beds/100.000 inhabitants 13.8 (11.6–15.9) 11.6 (6.4–15.9) 11.6 (6.4–15.9) 0.001
 Geographical region  < 0.001
  Central Europe 15 (12.8%) 40 (14.8%) 147 (11.7%)
  Northern Europe 7 (6.0%) 27 (10.0%) 257 (20.5%)
  Southern Europe 7 (6.0%) 32 (11.9%) 98 (7.8%)
  Western Europe/USA 88 (75.2%) 171 (63.3%) 752 (60.0%)
Hospital characteristics
 Hospital type 0.002
  Public 20 (17.1%) 47 (17.4%) 318 (25.4%)
  Private 10 (8.5%) 7 (2.6%) 77 (6.1%)
  University-affiliated 28 (23.9%) 43 (15.9%) 178 (14.2%)
  University 59 (50.4%) 173 (64.1%) 681 (54.3%)
 Total beds in hospital  < 0.001
  < 250 20 (17.1%) 17 (6.3%) 85 (6.8%)
  250–499 33 (28.2%) 58 (21.5%) 271 (21.6%)
  500–749 15 (12.8%) 70 (25.9%) 336 (26.8%)
  > 750 49 (41.9%) 125 (46.3%) 562 (44.8%)
ICU characteristics
 Ethical climate 0.13
  Good 26 (22.2%) 54 (20.0%) 241 (19.2%)
  Average +  48 (41.0%) 97 (35.9%) 552 (44.0%)
  Poor 43 (36.8%) 119 (44.1%) 461 (36.8%)
 Number of beds per ICU 12 (8–22) 12.5 (10–25) 14 (10–24) 0.02
 Patient-to-nurse ratio 2 (2–2) 2 (1.4–3) 2 (1.3–3) 0.04
 Patient-to-junior physician ratio 5 (3–7) 4 (3–6) 4 (3–6) 0.09
 Patient-to-senior physician ratio 7 (6–8) 7 (5–8) 7 (4–8) 0.08
 Percentage of population > 65 year in ICUa 18 (18–18) 18 (18–18) 18 (18–18)  < 0.001
Patient characteristics
 Age 66 (58–73) 67 (57–75) 63 (50–74) 0.002
 Gender 63 (53.8)% 171 (63.3)% 736 (58.7)% 0.18
 ECOG performance status  < 0.001
  Grade 0 20 (17.1%) 78 (28.9%) 475 (37.9%)
  Grade 1 30 (25.6%) 89 (33.0%) 285 (22.7%)
  Grade 2 26 (22.2%) 45 (16.7%) 169 (13.5%)
  Grade 3 21 (17.9%) 27 (10.0%) 156 (12.4%)
  Grade 4 9 (7.7%) 16 (5.9%) 57 (4.5%)
  Unknown 11 (9.4%) 15 (5.6%) 112 (8.9%)
  Nursing home resident 3 (2.6%) 6 (2.2%) 69 (5.5%) 0.03
 Moderate-to-severe comorbidities  < 0.001
  0 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 790 (63.0%)
  1 90 (76.9%) 197 (73.0%) 379 (30.2%)
  ≥ 2 27 (23.1%) 73 (23.0%) 85 (6.8%)
 Type comorbidity
  Heart failure (NYHA III or IV) 5 (4.3%) 21 (7.8%) 166 (13.2%)  < 0.001
  COPD (Gold III or IV or equivalent) 12 (10.3%) 35 (13.0%) 143 (11.4%) 0.69
  Neurological (excluding dementia) 7 (6.0%) 7 (2.6%) 89 (7.1%) 0.02
  Liver cirrhosis (Child–Pugh B or C) 0 (0.0%) 10 (3.7%) 72 (5.7%)  < 0.001
  Chronic renal failure requiring dialysis 4 (3.4%) 4 (1.5%) 46 (3.7%) 0.16
  Dementia (moderate or severe) 1 (0.9%) 6 (2.2%) 32 (2.6%) 0.67
  AIDS 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.4%) 13 (1.0%)  < 0.001
 Abuse
  Alcohol 1 (0.9%) 14 (5.2%) 166 (13.2%)  < 0.001
  Smoking 10 (8.5%) 39 (14.4%) 241 (19.2%) 0.005
 Main admission reason
  Respiratory failure 36 (30.8%) 65 (24.1%) 289 (23.0%) 0.17
  Sepsis/severe sepsis/septic shock 34 (29.1%) 67 (24.8%) 222 (17.7%)  < 0.001
  Heart failure/cardiogenic shock 11 (9.4%) 24 (8.9%) 244 (19.5%)  < 0.001
  Neurologic pathology/stroke/ICB 8 (6.8%) 17 (6.3%) 157 (12.5%) 0.002
  Gastro-intestinal pathology/liver failure 10 (8.5%) 26 (9.6%) 133 (10.6%) 0.72
  Metabolic/renal 14 (12.0%) 22 (8.1%) 108 (8.6%) 0.44
  Multiple trauma 0 (0.0%) 4 (1.5%) 92 (7.3%)  < 0.001
  Head trauma 1 (0.9%) 2 (0.7%) 55 (4.4%) 0.003
  Surgery within 48 h 38 (32.5%) 122 (45.2%) 100 (31.9%)  < 0.001
 Surgery  < 0.001
  No surgery 79 (67.5%) 141 (52.2%) 850 (67.8%)
  Scheduled surgery 19 (16.2%) 77 (28.5%) 111 (8.9%)
  Unscheduled surgery 19 (16.2%) 52 (19.3%) 293 (23.4%)
 Do-not-resuscitate order before ICU admission  < 0.001
  Full code 87 (74.4%) 224 (90.4%) 1132 (90.3%)
  Unknown 8 (6.8%) 10 (3.7%) 57 (4.5%)
  No CPR 14 (12.0%) 13 (4.8%) 34 (2.7%)
  Withholding therapy 8 (6.8%) 3 (1.1%) 31 (2.5%)
 Severity of illness < 24 h after admission
  Invasive mechanical ventilation 42 (35.9%) 126 (46.7%) 616 (49.1%) 0.02
  Vasopressor need 34 (29.1%) 106 (39.3%) 443 (35.3%) 0.15
  Dialysis 3 (2.6%) 5 (1.9%) 47 (3.7%) 0.31
  Written withholding/withdrawing order < 24 h 11 (9.4%) 6 (2.2%) 50 (4.0%) 0.008
 Characteristics during ICU stay
  Non-missing patients n = 93 n = 253 n = 1165 0.20
  Invasive mechanical ventilation 46 (49.5%) 143 (56.5%) 684 (58.7%)
  Duration of invasive ventilation 3 (1–7) 2 (1–6) 2 (1–6) 0.36
  Vasopressor need 42 (45.2%) 130 (51.4%) 544 (46.7%)
  Duration of vasopressors 3 (1–5) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 0.67
  Dialysis 5 (5.4%) 21 (8.3%) 97 (8.3%)
  Duration of dialysis 3 (3–10) 5 (3–8) 3 (1–7) 0.26
  Length of ICU stay 3.6 (1.6–7.7) 3.8 (1.9–8.0) 3.2 (1.6–7.9)
  1. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  2. a. Variable considered as categorical because of the limited number of unique values