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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of patients from Cohort 2

From: Platelet activation in critically ill COVID-19 patients

Characteristics Healthy controls All patients Disease severity p value
  N = 13 N = 32 Mild-to-moderate Severe Critical  
    N = 11 N = 10 N = 11  
Age, median (IQR), year 59.2 (45.2, 60.0) 55.6 (51.2, 64.8) 55.9 (44.7–65.1) 53.5 (48.02–61) 60.2 (54.8–71.65) 0.23
Male, no. (%) 10 (77) 24 (75) 8 (72.7) 9 (90) 7 (63.6) 0.37
Median interval from first symptoms on admission (IQR), days 10 (9–11) 9 (9–11) 10.5 (10–12) 9 (8–11) 0.06
Coexisting disorder, no. (%)
 Any 0 (0) 14 (44) 2 (18) 3 (30) 9 (82) 0.006
 COPD 0 (0) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (9) 0.37
 Diabetes 0 (0) 5 (16) 0 (0) 1 (10) 4 (36) 0.053
 Hypertension 0 (0) 10 (31) 2 (18) 2 (20) 6 (55) 0.12
 Cardiovascular disease 0 (0) 3 (9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (27) 0.042
 Cancer or hemopathy 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Chronic renal disease 0 (0) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (9) 0.37
 Overweight 0 (0) 2 (6) 1 (9) 1 (10) 0 (0) 0.5
Fever on admission
 Median temperature (IQR), °C 38.9 (38.5–39.4) 38.8 (38.2–39.5) 38.6 (38.5–39.7) 39.0 (38.5–39.4)
Symptoms on admission (%)
 Fever 32 (100) 11 (100) 10 (100) 11 (100)  
 Dyspnea 32 (100) 11 (100) 10 (100) 11 (100)  
 Cough 31 (97) 10 (91) 10 (100) 11 (100) 0.37
 Fatigue 31 (97) 10 (91) 10 (100) 11 (100) 0.37
 Myalgia 20 (63) 8 (73) 8 (10) 4 (36) 0.082
 Diarrhea 11 (34) 4 (36) 5 (50) 1 (9) 0.091
Median oxygen requirement (IQR, L/min)       
Clinical outcomes, no. (%)       
 Thrombotic events 3 (9) 0 (0) 1 (10) 2 (18) 0.34
 Clinical worsening requiring MV 0 (0) 5 (50)
 Death 5 (15.6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (45.5) < 0.001
Laboratory findings on admission
 Leukocytes (IQR), × 109/L 6.7 (4.31–8.82) 4.71 (3.78–5.68) 7.78 (6.46–8.43) 9.38 (5.48–10.49) 0.038
 Neutrophils (IQR), x 109/L 5.08 (3.12–7.37) 3.25 (2.07–3.44) 5.81 (4.74–6.36) 7.69 (4.32–9.13) 0.022
 Lymphocytes (IQR), × 109/L 0.84 (0.56–1.13) 1.00 (0.84–1.40) 0.88 (0.57–1.12) 0.65 (0.45–0.84) 0.031
 Monocytes (IQR), × 109/L 0.41 (0.23–0.52) 0.40 (0.26–0.52) 0.42 (0.27–0.51) 0.33 (0.12–1.05) 0.95
 Platelets (IQR), × 109/L 249 (159–298) 166 (112–251) 229 (170–282) 313 (199–352) 0.007
 CRP (IQR), mg/L 0.7 (0.0–0.8) 118 (55–242) 30 (14–76) 169 (136–249) 159 (109–308) < 0.001
 Lactate dehydrogenase (IQR), U/L 169 (155–224) 424 (346–574) 262 (196–454) 411 (396–623) 504 (426–614) 0.1
  1. Significant values (p < 0.05) are emphasized in bold
  2. Quantitative variables are described as median (interquartile range) and compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test; qualitative variables are described as n (%) and compared using the χ2 test of independence
  3. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRP C-reactive protein, IQR interquartile range, MV mechanical ventilation