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Table 3 Comparison of patient characteristics, therapy, and outcome within the four temperature-trajectory phenotypes

From: Novel phenotypes of coronavirus disease: a temperature-based trajectory model

Variables Phenotype-1 Normothermic (n = 1217) Phenotype-2 Fever, fast resolvers (n = 189) Phenotype-3 Gradual fever onset (n = 122) Phenotype-4 Fever, slow resolvers (n = 52) p
Demographic data
 Age [n (%)] 57.7 ± 14.6 58.1 ± 13.4 57.7 ± 12.2 55.2 ± 13.0 0.639
 Male [n (%)] 603 (49.5) 117 (61.9) 74 (60.6) 44 (84.6)  < 0.001
 Hypertension [n (%)] 314 (25.8) 37 (19.5) 34 (27.8) 12 (23.0) 0.262
 Diabetes mellitus [n (%)] 145 (11.9) 20 (10.5) 13 (10.6) 6 (11.5) 0.938
 Chronic heart diseases [n (%)] 90 (7.3) 7 (3.7) 6 (4.9) 1 (2.0) 0.100
Severity of COVID-19  < 0.001
 Mild [n (%)] 846 (69.5) 105 (55.5) 64 (52.4) 26 (50.0)  
 Severe [n (%)] 251 (20.6) 50 (26.4) 27 (22.1) 12 (21.4)  
 Critical [n (%)] 120 (9.8) 34 (17.9) 31 (25.4) 14 (26.9)  
Inflammatory markers
 Initial neutrophil count (10^9/L) 5.0 ± 3.2 5.8 ± 3.5 5.5 ± 3.7 4.7 ± 3.5  < 0.001
 Maximum neutrophil count (10^9/L) 6.4 ± 4.9 8.1 ± 5.7 8.7 ± 6.1 9.1 ± 3.9  < 0.001
 Change of neutrophil count (10^9/L) 1.4 ± 3.4 2.3 ± 4.4 3.1 ± 4.6 4.3 ± 5.2  < 0.001
 Initial lymphocyte count (10^9/L) 1.2 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5  < 0.001
 Minimum lymphocyte count (10^9/L) 1.0 ± 0.6 0.8 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.3  < 0.001
 Change of lymphocyte count (10^9/L) − 0.13 ± 0.30 − 0.19 ± 0.41 − 0.30 ± 0.40 − 0.34 ± 0.44  < 0.001
 Initial CRP level (mmol/L) 30 ± 39 (n = 250) 54 ± 42 (n = 47) 40 ± 44 (n = 33) 62 ± 52 (n = 13)  < 0.001
 Maximum CRP level (mmol/L) 39 ± 45 64 ± 43 75 ± 57 105 ± 53  < 0.001
 Change of CRP level (mmol/L) 8 ± 24 10 ± 24 34 ± 37 43 ± 41  < 0.001
Initial SOFA score 1 (0–2) 2 (1–2) 1 (0–1) 2 (1–2.5)  < 0.001
Maximum SOFA score 1 (0–2) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4)  < 0.001
Immunotherapy
 Corticosteroid therapy [n (%)] 314 (25.8) 94 (49.7) 49 (40.1) 32 (61.5)  < 0.001
 Gamma-globulin therapy [n (%)] 257 (21.1) 70 (37.0) 54 (44.2) 25 (48.0)  < 0.001
 Interferon therapy [n (%)] 187 (15.3) 22 (11.6) 18 (14.7) 5 (9.6) 0.405
Clinical outcomes
 In-hospital death [n (%)] 138 (11.3) 39 (20.6) 31 (25.4) 15 (28.8)  < 0.001
 ARDS [n (%)] 249 (20.4) 65 (34.3) 44 (36.0) 19 (36.5)  < 0.001
 Intubation [n (%)] 61 (5.0) 24 (12.7) 11 (9.0) 8 (15.4)  < 0.001
 Duration of mechanical ventilation (days) 6.7 ± 5.2 7.1 ± 5.4 5.9 ± 4.1 6.2 ± 5.5 0.905
 Hospital length of stay (days) 12.4 ± 6.8 14.7 ± 8.2 15.2 ± 7.3 16.8 ± 7.6  < 0.001
  1. CRP C-reactive protein, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome