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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients and final acute kidney injury status

From: Acute kidney injury prevalence, progression and long-term outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study

Characteristics Overall
n = 313a
No AKI
n = 73a
AKI
n = 240a
Age (years) 54.5 (13.9) 51.6 (13.8) 55.4 (13.9)
Male sex 219 (70%) 49 (67%) 170 (71%)
Ethnicity: White 119 (46%) 25 (42%) 94 (47%)
 Black 90 (35%) 16 (27%) 74 (37%)
 Others 49 (19%) 18 (31%) 31 (16%)
Admission: ED 94 (30%) 18 (25%) 76 (32%)
 Ward 102 (33%) 24 (33%) 78 (32%)
 Transfer from other ICUs 114 (36%) 31 (42%) 83 (35%)
 Others 3 (1.0%) 0 (0%) 3 (1.2%)
Infection setting: Community-acquired 275 (90%) 61 (85%) 214 (91%)
 Hospital acquired 8 (2.6%) 1 (1.4%) 7 (3.0%)
 Occupational 24 (7.8%) 10 (14%) 14 (6.0%)
BMI (kg/m2) 29.6 (6.5) 27.9 (5.2) 30.1 (6.7)
Current smoker 13 (6.1%) 6 (11%) 7 (4.3%)
Admission SOFA score 5.4 (2.6) 3.9 (2.3) 5.9 (2.5)
APACHE II Score 14.2 (4.8) 12.5 (4.8) 14.7 (4.7)
Clinical frailty score 2.6 (1.0) 2.4 (0.9) 2.6 (1.0)
Comorbidities: diabetes 95 (30%) 12 (16%) 83 (35%)
 Asthma 48 (15%) 14 (19%) 34 (14%)
 Hypertension 126 (40%) 19 (26%) 107 (45%)
 Coronary artery disease 15 (4.8%) 2 (2.7%) 13 (5.4%)
 Congestive heart failure 14 (4.5%) 2 (2.7%) 12 (5.0%)
 Atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter 11 (3.5%) 1 (1.4%) 10 (4.2%)
 COPD 12 (3.8%) 0 (0%) 12 (5.0%)
 Chronic kidney disease 22 (7.0%) 1 (1.4%) 21 (8.8%)
 Chronic liver disease 12 (3.8%) 1 (1.4%) 11 (4.6%)
 HIV infection 7 (2.2%) 3 (4.1%) 4 (1.7%)
 Malignancy 14 (4.5%) 3 (4.1%) 11 (4.6%)
 Other coinfections 42 (13%) 9 (12%) 33 (14%)
 Charlson Comorbidity Index 0.8 (1.3) 0.6 (1.2) 0.9 (1.3)
Type of ventilation on admission:    
 Invasive 254 (81.2%) 48 (65.8%) 206 (85.8%)
 Non-invasive 4 (1.3%) 0 4 (1.7%)
 High-flow nasal cannula 21 (6.7%) 8 (11.0%) 13 (5.4%)
 None 34 (10.9%) 17 (23.3%) 17 (7.1%)
Vasopressor support on admission 133 (42.5%) 23 (31.5%) 110 (45.8%)
ECMO 58 (18.5%) 18 (24.7%) 40 (16.7%)
Medications: ACE-Inhibitor 54 (17%) 8 (11%) 46 (19%)
ARB 39 (12%) 5 (6.8%) 34 (14%)
Baseline creatinineb 86.2 (38.7) 73.7 (31.7) 90.0 (39.9)
pH 7.4 (0.1) 7.4 (0.1) 7.4 (0.1)
PaO2 (kPa) 11.6 (5.0) 11.7 (5.1) 11.5 (5.0)
Ionised calcium (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1)
Lactate (mmol/L) 2.2 (2.0) 1.9 (1.8) 2.2 (2.0)
Chloride (mEq/L) 99.8 (5.7) 99.5 (6.4) 99.9 (5.5)
White blood cells (10^9/L) 9.9 (4.8) 9.7 (5.2) 9.9 (4.6)
Neutrophils (10^9/L) 8.4 (4.4) 8.4 (4.7) 8.4 (4.3)
Lymphocytes (10^9/L) 0.8 (0.5) 0.9 (0.4) 0.8 (0.6)
Haemoglobin (g/L) 115.8 (22.1) 114.4 (24.5) 116.2 (21.3)
Platelet (10^9/L) 253.2 (108.7) 284.1 (128.8) 243.8 (100.3)
Urea (mmol/L) 10.1 (9.4) 6.7 (4.3) 11.0 (10.2)
Creatinine (µmol/L) 121.0 (101.7) 70.4 (30.7) 136.4 (110.4)
Albumin (g/L) 31.2 (6.4) 31.1 (6.3) 31.2 (6.4)
ALT (U/L) 67.2 (115.7) 49.8 (41.9) 72.4 (129.2)
Bilirubin (µmol/L) 12.8 (16.3) 9.4 (5.8) 13.7 (18.2)
CRP (mg/L) 203.6 (137.3) 166.9 (129.7) 214.9 (137.8)
Sodium (mmol/L) 138.5 (6.3) 139.3 (6.6) 138.3 (6.2)
Potassium (mmol/L) 4.5 (0.8) 4.3 (0.7) 4.6 (0.9)
Bicarbonate (mmol/L) 24.5 (5.5) 26.9 (6.6) 23.8 (5.0)
Fibrinogen (g/L) 6.8 (2.0) 6.7 (1.9) 6.8 (2.1)
Ferritin (ng/mL) 1,991.3 (2,672.8) 1,332.2 (1,233.7) 2,199.1 (2,958.3)
PaO2/FiO2, kPa 21.0 (12.5) 23.3 (11.9) 20.4 (12.6)
Urine output (ml) 1,078.0 (818.5) 1,289.9 (787.0) 1,014.1 (818.6)
  1. aStatistics presented: mean (SD); n (%)
  2. bDetermined at true baseline creatinine (n = 106), first hospital admission (n = 130) or baseline creatinine back calculated by MDRD formula (n = 77)
  3. Missing: ethnicity (n = 55), infection setting (n = 6), smoker (n = 99), homeless (n = 10), BMI (n = 33)
  4. Missing: pH (n = 1), PaO2 (n = 8), ionised calcium (n = 3), lactate (n = 1), chloride (n = 6), white blood cells (n = 5), neutrophils (n = 24), lymphocytes (n = 5), Hb (n = 5), platelet (n = 5), urea (n = 17), creatinine (n = 4), albumin (n = 4), ALT (n = 9), bilirubin (n = 10), CRP (n = 7), sodium (n = 3), potassium (n = 4), bicarbonate (n = 3), fibrinogen (n = 35), ferritin (n = 46), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (n = 9), urine output (n = 2)
  5. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ED emergency department, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE II Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, ALT alanine transaminase, CRP C-reactive protein, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, BMI body mass index, kPa kiloPascal