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Table 3 Adjusted* hazard ratios for acute kidney injury progression in intensive care unit according to therapies

From: Acute kidney injury prevalence, progression and long-term outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study

Variable Patients with AKI progression Patients with no AKI progression Hazard ratio 95% CI P-value
Cumulative net balance at 48 h (each 1000 ml)    1.205 1.108, 1.311  < 0.001
Ventilation type      
 None 5 26 1 (ref)   
 Invasive 89 100 4.114 1.614, 10.485 0.003
 Non-invasive/mask/HFNC 6 14 2.677 0.783, 9.150 0.116
Vasopressor      
 No 51 94 1 (ref)   
 Yes 49 46 1.355 0.906, 2.025 0.139
ECMO      
 No 88 112 1 (ref)   
 Yes 12 28 0.808 0.411, 1.590 0.538
Prone position      
 No 50 100 1 (ref)   
 Yes 50 40 0.926 0.671, 1.279 0.642
Remdesivir      
 No 98 131 1 (ref)   
 Yes 2 9 0.407 0.055, 2.985 0.376
New steroids      
 No 28 71 1 (ref)   
 Yes 72 69 0.730 0.550, 0.970 0.030
Anticoagulation use (excluding thromboembolism prophylaxis)      
 No 47 92 1 (ref)   
 Yes 53 48 0.833 0.580, 1.196 0.322
Total 100 140    
  1. *adjustment for age, sex, and the following factors measured at ICU admission: AKI stage, HCO3, bilirubin, ALT, iCa, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, BMI, and Charlson Comorbidity Index
  2. HFNC, high-flow nasal cannula; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; AKI, acute kidney injury; CI, confidence interval