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Table 2 Details on antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)

From: Antimicrobial stewardship, therapeutic drug monitoring and infection management in the ICU: results from the international A- TEAMICU survey

Characteristic Numbers (%)
Infection management and ASP
 ASP available in the ICU 499 (63%)
 Any restriction of antimicrobials 478 (62%)
 Availability of local treatment guidelines 619 (82%)
 Quantitative monitoring of antimicrobial use 409 (56%)
 Availability of cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility reports 506 (70%)
 Use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) 435 (61%)
 Use of prolonged/continuous infusion of antimicrobials 539 (76%)
Implementation of restriction of antimicrobials
 Antibiotic order forms 198 (41%)
 Pre-authorization 156 (33%)
 Post-authorization 125 (26%)
 Post-prescription review 130 (27%)
 Telephone feedback 114 (24%)
 Formulary restriction 89 (19%)
 Mandatory bedside consultation 91 (19%)
 Computerized alerts 56 (12%)
 Automatic stop orders 43 (9%)
Availability of guidelines/standards
 De-escalation of therapy 410 (50%)
 Duration of therapy 377 (46%)
 Dose optimization 357 (44%)
 Discontinuation 266 (33%)
Antimicrobials with available TDM
 Glycopeptides 387 (89%)
 Aminoglycosides 333 (77%)
 Carbapenems 138 (32%)
 Penicillins 131 (30%)
 Azole antifungals 117 (27%)
 Cephalosporins 76 (17%)
 Linezolid 68 (16%)
 Echinocandin antifungals 66 (15%)
 Colistin 52 (12%)
 Quinolones 44 (10%)
 Daptomycin 36 (8%)
Antimicrobials with prolonged/continuous infusion
 Penicillins 410 (76%)
 Carbapenems 405 (75%)
 Glycopeptides 269 (50%)
 Cephalosporins 163 (30%)
 Linezolid 71 (13%)
 Azole antifungals 39 (7%)