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Table 1 Characteristics and outcome of the study population

From: Monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR but not β-d-glucan may help early diagnosing invasive Candida infection in critically ill patients

  Overall population
(n = 50)
No invasive candida infection
(n = 40)
Invasive Candida infection
(n = 10)
p-value
Age 66.4 [60.5–71.3] 66 [57.8–70.3] 69.5 [60.7–74.5] 0.343
Male 34 (68) 27 (67.5) 7 (70) 0.880
SAPSII at admission 50 [43–62] 48 [42–58] 58 [47–66] 0.143
SOFA score at admission 10 [7–12] 9 [7–12] 11.5 [7–13] 0.528
Past medical history
 Diabetes 15 (30) 12 (30) 3 (30) 1.000
 NYHA III–IV heart insufficiency 8 (16.3) 8 (20.5) 0 (0) 0.117
 Chronic renal failure 5 (10) 4 (10) 1 (10) 1.000
 Cirrhosis 15 (30) 13 (32.5) 2 (20) 0.440
 COPD 12 (24) 11 (27.5) 1 (10) 0.246
 Cancer 14 (28) 7 (17.5) 7 (70) 0.001
Site of initial bacterial infection
 Community-acquired pneumonia 5 (10) 5 (12.5) 0 (0) 0.239
 Health-care associated pneumonia 6 (12) 4 (10) 2 (20) 0.384
 Intra-abdominal infection 17 (34) 11 (27.5) 6 (60) 0.052
 Biliary tract infection 5 (10) 4 (10) 1 (10) 1.000
 Urinary tract infection 2 (4) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0.470
 Other infections 9 (18) 8 (20) 1 (10) 0.915
Risk factors for Candida infection at inclusion
 Candida colonization 34 (68) 27 (67.5) 7 (70) 0.880
 Multifocal Candida colonization 32 (64) 24 (60) 8 (80) 0.239
 Candida score 4 [3, 4] 3 [3, 4] 4 [4, 5] 0.071
 Parenteral nutrition 20 (40) 15 (37.5) 5 (50) 0.470
 Surgery 27 (54) 19 (47.5) 8 (80) 0.065
 Abdominal surgery 23 (46) 15 (37.5) 8 (80) 0.016
 Broad-spectrum antibiotherapy 50 (100) 40 (100) 10 (100) 1
Immunologicals and mycological parameters at inclusion
 Total lymphocytes 613 [349–992] 620 [391–1000] 546 [289–731] 0.434
CD8+T cells 73 [51–184] 71 [47–167] 124 [59–209] 0.343
CD4+T cells 279 [134–409] 279 [146–467] 245 [93–373] 0.493
 NK cells 64 [29–106] 65 [30–118] 42 [29–66] 0.331
 mHLA-DR 9477 [3605–15513] 9426 [3978–15668] 12,387 [3592–13180] 0.888
 Beta-d-glucan 73 [22–145] 76 [16–181] 62 [34–107] 0.872
Outcome and treatments
 Antifungal therapy at inclusion 20 (40) 11 (27.5) 9 (90)  < 0.001
 Mechanical ventilation, days 3 [1–10] 3 [1–6.5] 9 [2–22] 0.067
 Vasopressors, days 2.5 [2–6] 2.5 [2–4.5] 4 [2–8] 0.458
 ICU length of stay 7 [4–14.5] 7 [4–14] 9.5 [3–22] 0.596
 Day in ICU before inclusion 2 [1, 2] 2 [1, 2] 2 [2–2] 0.616
 Death 17 (34) 12 (30) 5 (50) 0.232
  1. Categorical data are expressed as number and percentage. Continuous data are expressed as median and quartiles. Comparisons were made between patients with invasive Candida infection and without invasive Candida infection
  2. SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, NYHA New York Heart Association, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mHLA-DR monocytic human leucocyte antigen DR, ICU intensive care unit