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Table 1 Summary of studies that reported pulmonary aspergillosis among patients with COVID-19

From: Risk factors for invasive aspergillosis in ICU patients with COVID-19: current insights and new key elements

Reference Country Patients Included (patients with IA/ total of patients) ICU Patients MV Patients IA: diagnosis from ICU admission (days) Criteria / Definitions used BAL GM +  Serum GM + 
Alanio France 9/27 9 9 NA CAPA definition (Verweij)
AspICU (Blot)
Modified AspICU (Schauwvlieghe)
EORTC/MSG
1/7 1/9
Bartoletti Italy 30/108 30 30 4 (2 to 8) CAPA definition (Verweij)
AspICU (Blot)
Modified AspICU (Schauwvlieghe)
30/30 1/30
Borman United Kingdom 61 61 61 NA NA 5/61  
Dupont France 19/106 (17,9%) 19 18 10 (4 to 23) AspICU (Blot) 5/9 tested NA
Falces-Romero Spain 10 7 7 NA AspICU (Blot)
EORTC/MSG
2/2 tested 1/2 tested
Flikweert Netherlands 7 7 7 19,5 (1 to 24) custom (symptoms and GM + on BAL/serum OR positive BAL cultures) 6/7 (GM + on fluids, distinction between BAL or Serum NA) NA
Gangneux France 7/45 NA 7 NA CAPA definition (Verweij)
AspICU (Blot)
Modified AspICU (Schauwvlieghe)
NA 2/7
Helleberg Denmark 2/8 2 2 5 and 1 days NA 1/1 tested 1/2
Koehler Germany 5/19 5 5 NA CAPA definition (Verweij)
AspICU (Blot)
Modified AspICU (Schauwvlieghe)
3/3 tested 2/5
Lamoth Switzerland 3/80 NA 3 7 (3 to 8) CAPA definition (Verweij)
AspICU (Blot)
Modified AspICU (Schauwvlieghe)
EORTC/MSG
NA 1/3
Marr USA / Spain 20 20 20 9,5 (-1 to 24) custom (positive respiratoy fluids cultures OR GM + on serum/BAL or BDG serum) 0/1 tested 4/16 tested
Mitaka USA 4/7 NA 4 6,8 (1 to 14) AspICU (Blot) NA 1/3 tested
Nasir Pakistan 5/23 5 5 8 custom (clinical parameters, radiological findings and mycological data) NA 0/9 tested
Rothe Germany 2/140 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Rutsaert Belgium 7/34 7 7 8 (5 to 13) CAPA definition (Verweij)
AspICU (Blot)
Modified AspICU (Schauwvlieghe)
EORTC/MSG
5/6 1/6
Van Biesen Netherlands 9/42 9 9 3 (1 to 19) AspICU (Blot) 9 tested NA
Van Arkel Netherlands 6/31 6 6 5 (3 to 14) CAPA definition (Verweij)
AspICU (Blot)
Modified AspICU (Schauwvlieghe)
2/3 tested 0/3 tested
Wang China 8/104 8 4 19 custom (positive BAL or sputum cultures) NA NA
White United Kingdom 25/135 NA 25 NA 1,2 + modified IAPA guidelines to accepted NBL GM-EIA positivity in place of testing BAL NA 1/2 tested
Ichai* France 6/26 6 6 NC NC NC NC
Zuo* China 6/30 6 6 NC NC NC NC
Overall   239 patients    median 8 days from ICU admission
(median 6,8 days of MV)
  60/133 tested 16/97 tested
  1. BAL broncho-alveolar lavage, EIA enzyme immunoassays, GM galactomannan, GMI galactomannan index, IA invasive aspergillosis, ICU intensive care unit, MV mechanical ventilation, NA not applicable, NC not classifiable, NBL non-directed bronchial lavage, SV spontaneous ventilation
  2. GM + if GMI on BAL > 1,0 or serum > 0,5
  3. *article was not used in "Results" but only in "Discussion" modified from [13]