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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included patients in the analysis

From: Long-term survival of mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19: an observational cohort study

  Overall
N = 868
Survivors
N = 533
Non-Survivors
N = 335
p-value
Age, mean (SD), years 64 (11) 59 (12) 66 (10)  < 0.001
Female sex 243 (28) 134 (30.8) 79 (23.6) 0.013
Body mass index, mean (SD), kg/cm2 29 (5) 29 (5) 29 (5) 0.317
SAPS3, mean (SD), points 57.2 (11.0) 55.2 (9.8) 60.2 (12.1)  < 0.001
Comorbidities     
 Hypertension 401 (46) 223 (42) 178 (53) 0.001
 Obesity 268 (31) 176 (33) 92 (27) 0.049
 Diabetes 209 (24) 103 (19) 106 (32)  < 0.001
Previous therapy     
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 172 (20) 95 (18) 77 (23) 0.039
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers 122 (15) 69 (13) 53 (16) 0.139
 Steroids 34 (4) 15 (3) 19 (6) 0.028
Days from initiation symptoms to admission at hospital, median (P25, P75) 7 (4, 9) 7 (5, 9) 6 (4, 8) 0.078
Days from admission at hospital until orotracheal intubation, median (P25, P75) 3 (2, 6) 3 (1, 5) 3 (1, 7) 0.001
Noninvasive Respiratory support at ward     0.066
 Oxygen mask alone 644 (74) 421 (79) 223 (67)  
 High flow oxygen nasal cannula alone 105 (12) 66 (12) 39 (12)  
 Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation alone 98 (11) 54 (10.1) 44 (13)  
 Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and High flow oxygen nasal cannula 21 (2) 10 (2) 11 (3)  
Ventilatory management at ICU admission     
 Tidal volume, mean (SD), ml/kg PBW 7.2 (1) 7.2 (1) 7.2 (2) 0.476
 PEEP, mean (SD), cm of water 13 (3) 13 (3) 13 (3) 0.407
 Ratio PaO2/FiO2, mean (SD) 105 (48) 108 (47) 100 (48) 0.016
D-dimer, median (P25, P75), mg/ml, 3.5 (1, 17) 4 (1, 20) 3.5 (1, 12) 0.425
Ventilatory ratio, mean (SD) 2.1 (0.8) 2.0 (0.8) 2.2 (0.9) 0.009
Ratio neutrophil: lymphocyte, median (P25, P75) 13 (7, 22) 11 (7, 18) 16 (9, 28) 0.428
 Selective Digestive Decontamination 450 (52) 301 (56) 149 (45)  < 0.001
 Immunomodulator therapy 347 (40) 210 (39) 137 (41) 0.357
Steroids     0.104
 No 449 (52) 276 (52) 173 (52)  
 Methylprednisolone ≤ 1 mg/kg 206 (24) 137 (26) 69 (21)  
 Methylprednisolone > 1 mg/kg 213 (24) 120 (22) 93 (28)  
Compassionate therapies received during hospital stay     0.013
 None 155 (17.9) 89 (16.7) 66 (19.7)  
 Antiviral therapy only 196 (22.6) 136 (25.5) 60 (17.9)  
 Immunomodulatory agents only 71 (8.2) 35 (6.6) 36 (10.8)  
 Antiviral and inmunomodulatory therapies 446 (51.4) 273 (51.2) 173 (51.6)  
Antiviral therapy 796 (92) 492 (92) 304 (91) 0.245
Anticoagulation therapy 90 (10) 55 (10) 35 (10) 0.342
Norepinephrinea      < 0.001
 No 306 (32) 203 (38) 103 (31)  
 Low doses 105 (12) 44 (8) 61 (18)  
 High doses 457 (53) 286 (54) 171 (51)  
Days until intubation, median (P25, P75) 3 (1, 6) 3 (1, 5) 3 (1, 7) 0.002
Meet ARDS criteria at ICU admission     
 At ICU admission     0.009
 On day 2 from starting ventilatory support      < 0.001
Mild ARDS     
At ICU admission 220 (25.4) 136 (25.5) 84 (25.1)  
 On day 2 from starting ventilatory support 331 (38.2) 232 (43.6) 99 (29.6)  
Moderate ARDS     
 At t ICU admission 409 (47.1) 267 (50.1) 142 (42.4)  
 On day 2 from starting ventilatory support 410 (47.3) 239 (44.9) 171 (51.2)  
Severe ARDS     
 At ICU admission 239 (27.5) 130 (24.4) 109 (32.5)  
 On day 2 from starting ventilatory support 125 (14.4) 61 (11.5) 64 (19.2)  
  1. Data are n (%), unless otherwise indicated