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Table 1 Demographic data and baseline characteristics, ventilation parameters before ECMO day 0

From: Duration of invasive mechanical ventilation prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is not associated with survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by coronavirus disease 2019

  All patients n = 101 ICU survivors n = 60 ICU non-survivors n = 41 p value
Age, mean (SD)—years 56 (± 10) n = 101 52 (± 10) n = 60 61 (± 7) n = 41  < 0.001
Sex, male, no. (%) 71 (70) 39 (65) 32 (78) 0.2655
BMI, mean (SD)—kg/m2 31 (± 6) n = 101 31 (± 6) n = 60 31 (± 6) n = 41 0.946
RESP score, median (IQR) 2 (1–4) n = 101 2 (1–4) n = 60 1 (0–2) n = 41 0.001
SOFA, median (IQR) 8 (7–10) n = 101 8 (7–9) n = 60 9 (8–11) n = 41 0.0002
Apache II, mean (SD) 20 (± 3) n = 67 19 (± 3) n = 45 21 (± 3) n = 22 0.2791
IMV pre-ECMO, median (IQR)—days 7.7 (3.6–12.5) n = 101 7.8 (2.5–12.5) n = 60 6.8 (4–12.4) n = 41 0.9586
IMV < 7 days, no. (%) 48 (48) n = 101 27 (45) n = 60 21 (51) n = 41 0.6805
IMV < 10 days, no. (%) 66 (65) n = 101 39 (65) n = 60 27 (66) n = 41 1
Comorbidities     
 Arterial hypertension, no. (%) 60 (59) n = 101 32 (53) n = 60 28 (68) n = 41 0.1946
 Coronary artery disease, no. (%) 13 (13) n = 101 7 (12) n = 60 6 (15) n = 41 0.765
 Obesity, no. (%) 35 (35) n = 101 22 (37) n = 60 13 (32) n = 41 0.7631
 Diabetes mellitus, no. (%) 25 (25) n = 101 14 (23) n = 60 11 (27) n = 41 0.8689
 Underlying pulmonary disease, no. (%) 19 (19) n = 101 8 (13) n = 60 11 (27) n = 41 0.1484
 Immunosuppression, no. (%) 3 (3) n = 101 1 (2) n = 60 2 (5) n = 41 0.5645
 Chronic kidney disease, no. (%) 6 (6) n = 101 5 (8) n = 60 1 (2) n = 41 0.3967
 No underlying disease, no. (%) 19 (19) n = 101 14 (23) n = 60 4 (10) n = 41 0.1124
Pre-ECMO     
 PaO2/FiO2, median (IQR) 74.2 (61–109) n = 93 82.7 (63.1–121.7) n = 54 72.3 (60.3–86.7) n = 39 0.1818
 PaO2, median (IQR)—mmHg 81.8 (70.3–96.4) n = 101 82.2 (71.5–94.8) n = 60 81 (69.3–96.5) n = 41 0.6332
 PaCO2, median (IQR)—mmHg 47.8 (41.9–56.3) n = 101 49.5 (42.6–55) n = 60 45.8 (40.9–56.3) n = 41 0.2715
 pH, median (IQR)—mmHg 7.4 (7.4–7.5) n = 101 7.4 (7.4–7.5) n = 60 7.4 (7.4–7.5) n = 41 0.841
 BE, median (IQR)—mmol/L 6.7 (3.9–9.1) n = 101 7.1 (4.2–9.3) n = 60 5.7 (2.7–8.9) n = 41 0.354
 Prone positioning, no. (%) 101 (100) n = 101 60 (100) n = 60 41 (100) n = 41 1
 iNO, no. (%) 22 (21) n = 101 10 (17) n = 60 12 (29) n = 41 0.4812
 Tracheostomy, no. (%) 5 (6) 2 (4) 3 (8) .
Ventilation pre-ECMO day 0  
 PEEP, mean (SD)—cmH2O 13 (± 3) n = 94 13 (± 4) n = 55 13 (± 3) n = 39 0.6673
 Tidal volume, mean (SD)—ml 443 (± 149) n = 94 442 (± 172) n = 55 443 (± 110) n = 39 0.9854
 Tidal volume, mean (SD)—ml/kg IBW 6 (± 2) n = 89 6 (± 3) n = 54 7 (± 2) n = 39 0.7108
 Respiratory rate, mean (SD)—/min 22 (± 5) n = 94 22 (± 5) n = 55 23 (± 5) n = 39 0.3307
 Plateau pressure, mean (SD)—cmH2O 31 (± 5) n = 94 31 (± 6) n = 55 31 (± 5) n = 39 0.5097
 Peak pressure, mean (SD)—cmH2O 31 (± 5) n = 94 31 (± 6) n = 55 31 (± 5) n = 39 0.5097
 Driving pressure, mean (SD)—cmH2O 18 (± 5) n = 94 18 (± 6) n = 55 19 (± 4) n = 39 0.3251
 Mechanical power, median (IQR)—J/min 30 (22–38) n = 94 29 (21–38) n = 55 31 (24–37) n = 39 0.5142
  1. Metric data are reported by mean (± SD) or by median (IQR), n gives the number of available observations. Variation in RESP score was due almost exclusively to variation in age, therefore we also considered a version of the RESP score without age
  2. ICU intensive care unit, RESP respiratory ECMO survival prediction, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, BMI body mass index, PaO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO2 partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, BE base excess, iNO inhaled nitric oxide, IBW ideal body weight. IBW female = 45.5 + 0.9 * (height [cm]—152); IBW male = 50 + 0.9 * (height [cm]—152); driving pressure = peak pressure—PEEP; mechanical power = 0.098 × respiratory rate × tidal volume (l) × (Δ Pinsp + PEEP)