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Table 2 Ventilation parameters on ECMO day 1, ECMO-related data, transfusions, and therapy during clinical course according to ICU mortality

From: Duration of invasive mechanical ventilation prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is not associated with survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by coronavirus disease 2019

  All patients n = 101 ICU survivors n = 60 ICU non-survivors n = 41 p value
ICU LOS, median (IQR)—days 31 (20.7–51) n = 100 41 (23.8–58.8) n = 60 23 (13.8–36) n = 41 0.0011
Lung transplantation, no. (%) 15 (15) n = 101 12 (20) 3 (7) 0.0937
Ventilation during ECMO day 1     
 PEEP, mean (SD)—cmH2O 12 (± 2) n = 101 12 (± 2) n = 60 13 (± 3) n = 41 0.2034
 Tidal volume, mean (SD)—ml 270 (± 121) n = 101 260 (± 128) n = 60 284 (± 112) n = 41 0.267
 Tidal volume, mean (SD)—ml/kg IBW 4 (± 2) n = 101 4 (± 2) n = 60 4 (± 2) n = 41 0.4715
 Respiratory rate, mean (SD)—/min 15 (± 5) n = 101 16 (± 6) n = 60 15 (± 5) n = 41 0.4568
 Plateau pressure, mean (SD)—cmH2O 26 (± 5) n = 101 25 (± 2) n = 60 28 (± 5) n = 41 0.0076
 Peak pressure, mean (SD)—cmH2O 26 (± 5) n = 101 25 (± 2) n = 60 28 (± 5) n = 41 0.0076
 Driving pressure, mean (SD)—cmH2O 14 (± 2) n = 101 13 (± 2) n = 60 15 (± 4) n = 41 0.0191
 Mechanical power, median (IQR)—J/min 9 (6.1–13.2) n = 101 8.5 (5.5–12.2) n = 60 10 (6.5–15.6) n = 41 0.2611
ECMO configuration . . . 0.4449
 Venoarterial, no. (%) 4 (4) 1 (2) 3 (7) .
 Venovenoarterial, no. (%) 2 (2) 1 (2) 1 (3) .
 Venovenous, no. (%) 95 (95) 58 (97) 38 (93) .
 ECMO duration, median (IQR)—days 16.4 (8.7–27.7) n = 101 16.5 (10.8–28) n = 60 15 (6.4–24.2) n = 41 0.2567
 ECMO blood flow, mean (SD)—L/min 3.7 (± 1) n = 96 4 (± 1) n = 57 4 (± 1) n = 39 0.41
During ECMO     
 PRBCs, median (IQR)—units per patient 10 (4–15) n = 99 9.5 (4.2–15) n = 58 11 (4.8–15.5) n = 41 0.8449
 Albumin, median (IQR)—units per patient 14 (5–27) n = 99 13.5 (6–30.8) n = 58 15 (5–21.5) n = 41 0.4706
 Platelet concentrates, no. (%) 20 (20) n = 99 9 (16) n = 58 11 (27) n = 41 0.2599
 FFP, no. (%) 16 (16) n = 99 12 (21) n = 58 4 (10) n = 41 0.2386
 NMBA, no. (%) 96 (98) n = 98 57 (97) n = 59 39 (95) n = 41 0.5645
 Proning, no. (%) 100 (99) n = 101 60 (100) n = 60 40 (98) n = 41 0.4059
 iNO, no. (%) 54 (53) n = 101 29 (48) n = 60 25 (61) n = 41 0.3135
 Dexamethasone, no. (%) 50 (100) n = 101 28 (100) n = 60 22 (100) n = 41 0.5464
 Tracheostomy, no. (%) 44 (51) 32 (67) 12 (32) .
Outcome  
 ICU death, no. (%) 41 (41) n = 101 . . .
 Hospital death, no. (%) 44 (51) n = 87 . . .
  1. Metric data are reported by mean (± SD) or by median (IQR), n gives the number of available observations
  2. ICU intensive care unit, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, IBW ideal body weight, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LOS length of stay, PRBC packed red blood cells, FFP fresh frozen plasma, NMBA neuromuscular blocking agents, iNO inhaled nitric oxide, Pinsp inspiratory pressure. IBW female = 45.5 + 0.9 * (height [cm]—152); IBW male = 50 + 0.9 * (height [cm]—152); driving pressure = peak pressure—PEEP; mechanical power = 0.098 × respiratory rate x tidal volume (l) × (Δ Pinsp + PEEP)