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Table 1 Patient baseline characteristics in derivation and validation cohorts

From: Cell cycle arrest biomarkers for predicting renal recovery from acute kidney injury: a prospective validation study

Variables Derivation cohort (n = 194) Validation cohort (n = 185) p value
Baseline characteristics
 Age (year) 61 (50, 71) 60 (49, 74) 0.773
 Female gender 117 (60.3) 122 (65.9) 0.239
 BMI (kg/m2) 19.9 (17.3, 21.3) 20.7 (17.7, 22.1) 0.603
 APACHE II score 15 (10, 18) 14 (10, 18) 0.228
 Nonrenal SOFA score 5 (1, 8) 5 (2, 8) 0.543
 Baseline serum creatinine (μmol/L) 63.8 (53.5, 73.3) 65.4 (50.4, 73.2) 0.617
Admission type
 Medical 30 (15.5) 27 (14.6) 0.732
 Surgical (abdominal surgery) 93 (47.8) 86 (46.5) 0.892
 Surgical (non-abdominal surgery) 55 (28.4) 52 (28.1) 0.945
 Emergency 16 (8.3) 20 (10.8) 0.634
Main reason for admission
 Respiratory system 59 (30.4) 58 (32.4) 0.624
 Circulatory system 65 (33.5) 59 (31.9) 0.710
 Digestive system 42 (21.6) 43 (23.2) 0.547
 Urinary system 17 (8.8) 17 (9.2) 0.812
 Others 11 (5.7) 8 (4.3) 0.634
Comorbidities
 COPD/asthma 20 (10.3) 20 (10.8) 0.869
 Cardiovascular disease 40 (20.6) 43 (23.2) 0.536
 Chronic liver disease 42 (21.6) 41 (22.2) 0.902
 Diabetes 49 (25.2) 40 (21.6) 0.467
 Hypertension 91 (46.9) 79 (42.7) 0.469
 CKD 10 (5.1) 7 (3.9) 0.623
Sepsis 89 (45.8) 69 (37.3) 0.102
Mechanical ventilation 160 (82.5) 151 (81.6) 0.894
PaO2/FiO2 308.3 (232.5, 405.5) 316.0 (216.0, 403.3) 0.433
Use of vasopressor 68 (35.1) 61 (33.0) 0.658
Use of diuresis 28 (14.4) 23 (12.4) 0.724
AKI diagnosed by UO criteria 65 (33.5) 64 (34.6) 0.812
AKI diagnosed by SCr criteria 129 (66.5) 121 (65.4) 0.845
Serum creatinine diagnosing AKI (μmol/L) 128.6 (86.2, 173.4) 132.5 (90.4, 178.6) 0.415
Peak serum creatinine (μmol/L) 273.5 (154.6, 412.3) 292.3 (174.6, 432.5) 0.228
AKI classification
 Stage 1 104 (53.6) 94 (38.7) 0.588
 2 58 (29.9) 58 (44.0) 0.526
 3 32 (16.5) 33 (17.8) 0.713
Outcomes
 Renal recovery in 7 days 115 (59.3) 105 (56.8) 0.677
 Renal recovery at hospital discharge 112 (57.7) 103 (55.7) 0.683
 Need of RRT in ICU 35 (18.1) 30 (19.3) 0.583
 Hospital mortality 33 (9.2) 33 (8.6) 0.893
 30-day mortality 34 (13.3) 42 (12.9) 0.393
  1. Values are median (interquartile range) or n (%). AKI diagnosed by UO criteria was defined as patients who were diagnosed by UO criteria and/or SCr criteria, meanwhile AKI classification by UO criteria was equal or greater than SCr criteria. Otherwise, AKI was diagnosed by SCr criteria. Persistent AKI was defined as kidney dysfunction without recovery within 48 h
  2. AKI acute kidney injury, BMI body mass index, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Of Organ Failure Assessment, CKD chronic kidney disease, UO urine output, RRT renal replacement therapy