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Table 1 Patient characteristics: factors associated with reduced health-related quality of life and dyspnea 12 months after intensive care unit admission on univariate regression analysis

From: Health-related quality of life of COVID-19 two and 12 months after intensive care unit admission

  All patients
n = 94
12-month EQ-5D-3L
Visual Analog Scale
n = 82
12-month EQ-5D-3L
Time trade-off
n = 86
12-month mMRC
dyspnea scale
n = 86
Linear regression coefficient ± SD P Linear regression coefficient ± SD P Linear regression coefficient ± SD P
Age, years, median (IQR) 63 (49–70) 0.09 ± 0.14 0.540 0.01 ± 0.00 0.059 0.00 ± 0.01 0.915
Male gender, n (%) 67 (71) 7.27 ± 3.71 0.053 0.13 ± 0.07 0.071  − 0.20 ± 0.24 0.405
Body mass index, kg.m−2, median (IQR) 29.0 (26.3–33.6)  − 0.32 ± 0.25 0.216  − 0.01 ± 0.00 0.004 0.01 ± 0.02 0.413
Overweight, n (%) 39 (42)  − 2.11 ± 4.69 0.654  − 0.14 ± 0.09 0.120 0.00 ± 0.29 0.992
Obese, n (%) 39 (42)  − 3.56 ± 3.52 0.315  − 0.14 ± 0.07 0.042 0.15 ± 0.22 0.486
Comorbidities        
COPD, n (%) 7 (7) 2.67 ± 7.38 0.718 0.07 ± 0.14 0.596 0.50 ± 0.43 0.243
Asthma, n (%) 11 (12)  − 6.49 ± 5.13 0.210  − 0.11 ± 0.1 0.283 0.09 ± 0.33 0.795
Diabetes, n (%) 25 (27)  − 6.75 ± 3.92 0.089 0.01 ± 0.08 0.948 0.13 ± 0.25 0.596
Hypertension, n (%) 43 (46)  − 4.67 ± 3.5 0.186 0.01 ± 0.07 0.895 0.14 ± 0.22 0.541
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 24 (26) 1.94 ± 4.04 0.633 0.08 ± 0.08 0.294 0.05 ± 0.26 0.835
Active smoker, n (%) 32 (34)  − 8.81 ± 3.66 0.018  − 0.07 ± 0.07 0.319 0.46 ± 0.23 0.045
Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 8 (9)  − 5.5 ± 6.29 0.385 0.07 ± 0.12 0.537  − 0.22 ± 0.38 0.566
Immunosuppression, n (%) 12 (13)  − 0.44 ± 5.40 0.935 0.08 ± 0.10 0.442  − 0.12 ± 0.33 0.711
Charlson comorbidity index, median (IQR) 1 (0–2)  − 0.98 ± 0.93 0.297 0.01 ± 0.02 0.620 0.02 ± 0.06 0.746
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range [IQR]) and categorical variables are expressed as absolute value (%)
  2. Health-related quality of life is assessed with the EQ-5D-3L (EuroQol Research Foundation https://euroqol.org). Quality of life time trade-off utility values were calculated using the French value set. Perceived health was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Dyspnea was assessed by the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale
  3. mMRC, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  4. The linear regression coefficients represent the average increase or decrease in the variable to be explained when we compare two subjects with explanatory quantitative variables that differ by one unit or when we compare two subjects with explanatory qualitative variables taking the reference value for one of the subjects and another value for the second subject